JOURNAL BROWSE
Search
Advanced SearchSearch Tips
Castor oil based hyperbranched polyester/bitumen modified fly ash nanocomposite
facebook(new window)  Pirnt(new window) E-mail(new window) Excel Download
  • Journal title : Advances in nano research
  • Volume 4, Issue 1,  2016, pp.15-29
  • Publisher : Techno-Press
  • DOI : 10.12989/anr.2016.4.1.015
 Title & Authors
Castor oil based hyperbranched polyester/bitumen modified fly ash nanocomposite
Bhagawati, Deepshikha; Thakur, Suman; Karak, Niranjan;
 Abstract
A low cost environmentally benign surface coating binder is highly desirable in the field of material science. In this report, castor oil based hyperbranched polyester/bitumen modified fly ash nanocomposites were fabricated to achieve the desired performance. The hyperbranched polyester resin was synthesized by a three-step one pot condensation reaction using monoglyceride of castor oil based carboxyl terminated pre-polymer and 2,2-bis (hydroxymethyl) propionic acid. Also, the bulk fly ash of paper industry waste was converted to hydrophilic nano fly ash by ultrasonication followed by transforming it to an organonano fly ash by the modification with bitumen. The synthesized polyester resin and its nanocomposites were characterized by different analytical and spectroscopic tools. The nanocomposite obtained in presence of 20 wt% styrene (with respect to polyester) was found to be more homogeneous and stable compared to nanocomposite without styrene. The performance in terms of tensile strength, impact resistance, scratch hardness, chemical resistance and thermal stability was found to be improved significantly after formation of nanocomposite compared to the pristine system after curing with bisphenol-A based epoxy and poly(amido amine). The overall results of transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis and performance showed good exfoliation of the nano fly ash in the polyester matrix. Thus the studied nanocomposites would open up a new avenue on development of low cost high performing surface coating materials.
 Keywords
bio-based materials;hyperbranched polyesters;nano fly ash;nanocomposites;thermosets;
 Language
English
 Cited by
 References
1.
Belardi, G., Massimilla, S. and Massimillav, L.P. (1998), "Crystallization of K-L and K-W zeolites from flyash", Resour. Conserv. Cyle., 24, 167-181. crossref(new window)

2.
Borrego, A.G., Blanco, C.G., Prado, J.G., Diaz, C. and Guillen, M.D. (1996), "$^{1}H$ NMR and FTIR spectroscopic studies of bitumen and shale oil from selected spanish oil shales", Energy Fuel., 10, 77-84. crossref(new window)

3.
Can, E., Wool, R.P. and Kusefoglu, S. (2006), "Soybean-and castor-oil-based thermosetting polymers: Mechanical properties", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 102, 1497-1504 crossref(new window)

4.
Cao, G., Choi, H., Konishi, H., Kou, S., Lakes, R. and Li, X. (2008a), "Mg-6Zn/1 5% SiC nanocomposites fabricated by ultrasonic cavitation-based solidification processing", J. Mater. Sci., 43, 5521-5526. crossref(new window)

5.
Cao, G., Konishi, H. and Li, X. (2008b), "Mechanical properties and microstructure of SiC reinforced Mg-(2,4) Al-1Si nanocomposites fabricated by ultrasonic cavitation based solidification processing", Mater. Sci. Eng-A, 486, 357-362. crossref(new window)

6.
Chun, B.C., Cho, T.K. and Chang, Y.C. (2006), "Enhanced mechanical and shape memory properties of polyurethane block copolymers chain-extended by ethylene", Eur. Polym. J., 42, 3367-3373. crossref(new window)

7.
Cioffi, R., Pernice, P., Aronne, A., Catauro, M. and Quattroni, G. (1994), "Glass-ceramic from fly ash with added $LiO_2$", J. Euro. Ceramic Soc., 13, 143-148. crossref(new window)

8.
Criado, M., Fernandez-Jimenez, A., de la Torre, A.G., Aranda, M.A.G. and Palomo, A. (2007), "An XRD study of the effect of the $SiO_2$/$Na_2O ratio on the alkali activation of fly ash", Cem. Concr. Res., 37, 671-679. crossref(new window)

9.
De, B., Gupta, K., Mandal, M. and Karak, N. (2014), "Biodegradable hyperbranched epoxy from castor oilbased hyperbranched polyester polyol", ACS Sustain. Chem. Eng., 2, 445-453. crossref(new window)

10.
Diaconu, G., Paulis, M. and Leiza, J.R. (2008), "Towards the synthesis of high solids content waterborne poly(methyl methacrylate-co-butyl acrylate)/montmorillonite nanocomposites", Polymer, 49, 2444-2454. crossref(new window)

11.
Gaohui, W., Jian, G. and Xiao, Z. (2007), "Preparation and dynamic mechanical properties of polyurethane modified epoxy composites filled with functionalized fly ash particulates", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 105, 1118-1126. crossref(new window)

12.
Karak, N. (2009), Fundamentals of Polymers: Raw Materials to Finish Products, PHI Learning Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.

13.
Karak, N. (2012), Vegetable Oil-based Polymers: Properties, Processing and Applications, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Cambridge, UK.

14.
Karak, N. and Maiti, S. (2008) Dendrimers and Hyperbranched Polymers-Synthesis to Applications, MD Publication Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India.

15.
Khan, M.J., Al-Juhani, A.A., Ul-Hamid, A., Shawabkeh, R. and Hussein, I.A. (2011), "Effect of chemical modification of oil fly ash and compatibilization on the rheological and morphological properties of lowdensity polyethylene composites", J. Appl. Polym. Sci., 122, 2486-2496. crossref(new window)

16.
Khan, R., Khare, P., Baruah, B.P., Hazarika, A.K. and Dey, N.C. (2011), "Spectroscopic, kinetic studies of polyaniline-flyash composite", Adv. Chem. Eng. Sci., 1, 37-44 crossref(new window)

17.
Kokane, S.V. (2002), "Epoxy system-a review", Paint India, 52, 69-81.

18.
Konwar, U., Karak, N. and Mandal, M. (2009), "Mesua ferrea L. seed oil based highly thermostable and biodegradable polyester/clay nanocomposites", J. Polym. Degrad. Stab., 94, 2221-2230. crossref(new window)

19.
Kornmann, X., Lindberg, H. and Berglund, L.A. (2001), "Synthesis of epoxy-clay nanocomposites. Influence of the nature of the curing agent on structure", Polymer, 42, 4493-4499. crossref(new window)

20.
Kornmann, X., Thomann, R., Mulhaupt, R., Finter, J. and Berglund, L.A. (2002), "Synthesis of aminecured, epoxy-layered silicate nanocomposites: The influence of the silicate surface modification on the properties", J. App. Polym. Sci., 86, 2643-2652. crossref(new window)

21.
Krook, M., Albertsson, A.C., Gedde, U.W. and Hedenqvist, M.S. (2002), "Barrier and mechanical properties of montmorillonite/polyesteramide nanocomposites", Polym. Eng. Sci., 42, 1238-1246. crossref(new window)

22.
Krzan, A. (2009), "Highly oxidized polymers as an extreme of biodegradable polymers", J. Mol. Struct-THEOCHEM, 902, 49-53. crossref(new window)

23.
Kunduru, K.R., Basu, A., Zada, M.H. and Domb, A.J. (2015), "Castor oil-based biodegradable polyesters", Biomacromol., 16, 2572-2587. crossref(new window)

24.
Kusuma, G.J., Shimada, H., Sasaoka, T., Matsui, K., Nugraha, C., Gautama, R.S. and Sulistianto, B. (2012), "An evaluation on the physical and chemical composition of coal combustion ash and its co-placement with coal-mine waste rock", J. Environ. Prot., 3, 589-596. crossref(new window)

25.
Leszczynska, A., Njuguna, J., Pielichowski, K. and Banerjee, J.R. (2007), "Polymer/montmorillonite nanocomposites with improved thermal properties: Part II. Thermal stability of montmorillonite nanocomposites based on different polymeric matrixes", Thermochim. Acta., 454, 1-22. crossref(new window)

26.
Madbouly, S., Zhang, C. and Kessler, M.R. (2015), Bio-based Plant Oil Polymers and Composites, Elsevier, Oxford, UK.

27.
Malshe, V.C. and Sikchi, M. (2008), Basics of Paint Technology Part-II, Antar Prokash Centre for Yoga, Hardwar, India.

28.
Ogunniyi, D.S. (2006), "Castor oil: A vital industrial raw material", Bioresource. Technol., 97, 1086-1091. crossref(new window)

29.
Pandian, N.S. and Krishna, K.C. (2003), "The pozzolanic effect of fly ash on the California bearing ratio behaviour of black cotton soil", J. Test. Evaluat., 31, 479-485.

30.
Park, J.H., Lee, H.M., Chin, I.J., Choi, H.J., Kim, H.K. and Kang, W.G. (2008), "Intercalated polypropylene/clay nanocomposite and its physical characteristics", J. Phys. Chem. Solid., 69, 1375-1378. crossref(new window)

31.
Petrovic, Z.S. (2008), "Polyurethanes from vegetable oils", Polym. Rev., 48, 109-155. crossref(new window)

32.
Pramanik, M., Srivastava, S.K., Samantaray, B.K. and Bhowmick, A.K. (2003), "EVA/clay nanocomposite by solution blending: Effect of aluminosilicate layers on mechanical and thermal properties", Macromol. Res., 11, 260-266. crossref(new window)

33.
Ramos, A.D., Da Costa, H.M., Soares, V.L.P. and Nascimento, R.S.V. (2005), "Hybrid composites of epoxy resin modified with carboxyl terminated butadiene acrilonitrile copolymer and fly ash microspheres", Polym. Test., 24, 219-226. crossref(new window)

34.
Satapathy, S., Nando, G.B., Nag, A. and Raju, K.V.S.N. (2013), "HDPE-fly ash/nano fly ash composites", J. App. Polym. Sci., 130, 4558-4567.

35.
Thakur, S. and Karak, N. (2013), "Castor oil-based hyperbranched polyurethanes as advanced surface coating materials", Prog. Org. Coat., 76, 157-164. crossref(new window)

36.
Umare, S.S. and Chandure, A.S. (2008), "Synthesis, characterization and biodegradation studies of poly (ester urethane)s", Chem. Eng. J., 142, 65-77. crossref(new window)