Genetic algorithm is the theory of grafting the principle of survival of the fittest in genetics on to the computer algorithm and it is used to solve the optimization problems, especially the shape and size optimization of the structure in Architectural problems. In the size optimization problem discrete variables are used, but series variables have to be used in the shape optimization problem because of the incongruenty. The purpose of this study is to obtain the optimum shape of cable domes by using the real coding genetic algorithm. Generally, the structural performance of the cable domes is influenced very sensitively by pre-stress, geometry and length of the mast because of its flexible characteristic. So, it is very important to decide the optimum shape to get maximum stiffness of cable domes. We use the model to verify the usefulness of this algorithm for shape optimization and analyze the roof system of Seoul Olympic Gymnastic Arena as analytical model of a practical structures. It is confirmed lastly that the optimum shape domes have more stiffness than initial shape ones.