The Effect of Korean Soysauce and Soypaste Making on Soybean Protein Quality Part II. Chemical Changes During Meju-brine Ripening

재래식 간장 및 된장 제조가 대두 단백질의 영양가에 미치는 영향 제2보 메주장의 숙성중에 일어나는 성분 변화

  • Lee, Cherl-Ho (Department of Food Preservation, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University)
  • 이철호 (덴마크 왕립농과대학 식품저장학교실)
  • Published : 1976.03.28

Abstract

The laboratory Mejus as well as home-made Meju and improved Meju received from Korea were ripened in the brine for up to 8 months and the changes is the chemical composition during the process were determined and the differences between the types of Meju were compared. On the basis of the amino acid pattern, the changes in the protein quality of soybean during the process was evaluated. No significant changes in the general chemical composition of Meju were noticed during the ripening for 8 months. However, the nitrogen solubility of Meju increased for $13{\sim}29%$ to $66{\sim}78%$ during 8 month ripening of the Meju-brine mixture. The concentration of free amino-N to the total-N increased from $4{\sim}7%$ in Meju to $29{\sim}35%$ in the 8month ripened mixture. The concentration of amino-N to the total-N increased from $1{\sim}4%$ in Meju to $5{\sim}14%$ in the 8month ripened mixture and the changes varied with the type of Meju used. Remarkable changes in the amino acid pattern of soybean were occured during the ripening process. The concentration of methionine decreased to the half of original Meju during the first month of ripening. Arginine and histidine were destroyed rapidly by the ripening longer than 1 month. A considerable amount of ornithine was synthesized during the ripening. The amino acid pattern of Meju did change drastically during the ripening longer than 3 months and the changes varied with the type of Meju. The retention of the nutrients in soybean during 8 month ripening of the laboratory 3 month Meju in the brine was 49% for carbohydrates, 107% for crude fat, 93% for crude protein and 74% for the total amino acid. Histidine, arginine and methionine and 74% for the total amino acid. Histidine, arginine and methionine were the most damaged during the process, retaining only 25%, 27% and 49% of the contents in raw soybean, respectively, whereas lysine retained 79%. By the separation of the 8 month ripened mixture, approximately 60% of crude protein, all of crude fat and 80% of carbohydrates in the mixture were retained in soypaste. Soypaste contained higher concentrations of amino acids per 16gN compared to soysauce, except for lysine. The most limiting amino acid of the protein was the S-containing amino acids in all cases studied, whereas the second limiting amino acid varied from valine in soybean to threonine in most of Mejus and the brine mixtures, lysine in most of soypastes and tryptophan in some of soysauces. According to the protein quality evaluation made by the reference of the FAO provisional pattern of amino acid, the chemical score of raw soybean was 82, which was reduced to 77 by cooking and further reduced to $71{\sim}74$ by Meju fermentation. At the eighth month of ripening the chemical score of the Meju-brine mixtures were reduced to $51{\sim}66. After the separation, the chemical score of soypaste ranged from 60 to 71, whereas that of soysauce varied from 45 to 57. Generally, the products made from improved Meju recorded the highest score, whereas those made from homemade Meju showed the poorest protein quality. The essential amino acid index(EAAI) of the samples was similar to the chemical score, but it appeared to fit the overall changes in the amino acid pattern during the process better than the chemical score.

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