Field Bioassays On Shellfish To Assess Environmental Pollution Levels Of The Masan Bay

마산만(馬山灣)의 환경오염(環境汚染) 평가(評價)를 위한 야외(野外) 생물(生物) 오염(汚染) 시험(試驗) 연구(硏究)

  • Published : 1979.06.01


A study on field bioassay test using four species of commercially important shellfish was carried out to assess the effect of pollutants and determine the extent of marine environmental pollution of the Masan Bay from 9 to 15 August 1978. Water quality analysis and planktological examination of sea water were made during the experiment and the examination gave the following results. The water temperature was so high at 31.7$^{\circ}C$ in maximum and rather subject to change on weather condition of the land than on the effect of the water mass from outer bay. The range of DO,COD and SS at the stations were 0.3-7.08cc/l, 0.07-3.31ppm and 5.5-117ppm, respectively with the high values of COD and SS at the stations 7 and 1. The concentrations of the dissolved inorganic nitrogen in sea water, NH$\sub$4/-N, NO$\sub$2/-N, NO$\sub$3/-N, and PO$\sub$4/-P were 18.90-99.80, 2.48- 19.60, 13.00-39.00 and 1.04-14.0$\mu\textrm{g}$ at/l, respectively with decrease of their values in the outer part of the Bay. The high values mentioned above were caused by the sewage and industrial activities. The effects of organic waste are increased oxygen demand, nutrient concentration, turbidity and a higher input of pathogens, leading to structural changes in the marine ecosystems and to a considerable hazard to public health. The percentage composition of phytoplankton standing crop between diatom and dinoflagellate was characterized by making a difference between the two groups in respect of location: a decrease of diatom and a increase of dinoflagellate in numerical abundance toward inner part from outer part of the bay. Namely phytoplankton organisms were composed of 80% of diatom and 20% of dinoflagellate in outer bay, on the contrary, only 4% of diatom and 96% of dinoflagellate occupied by 94% of prorocentrum micans known as tolerant species to polluted reaas in the inner bay. On the occurrence and composition of zooplankton, there are two significant communities in the bay:one is characterized by the predominance of Oithona nana and the other by Favella sp They were composed of a range from 84% to 90% of the total organisms and monotonously constituted of themselves only at most inner station 3 even small numbers. From the results mentioned above, Oithona nana, Favella and prorocentrum micans recommed themselves as valuable indicators for judging the extent of the marine pollution.During the period of the biossays Mytilus edulis showed the highest mortality and Tapes japonica the lowest one between the four test species. The highest death rate by stations was found at most inner stations 3'and 4near Masan Free Export Zone with the most sensitive response and the lowest one occured at outer station 13 where no death specimen of oyster and arkshell was found during the whole test period.As for mussel,85 percent death rate appeared after 72 hours and 100percent rate after 120hours at station 4. It was found that the significant high mortality of the test shellfish mentioned above was caused by severe pollution with mainly organic pollutants from domestic sewage and industrial wastes from the results of too much higher concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen especially ammonia-N,COD,SS and lack of dissolved oxygen,and furthermore occurrence and abundance composition of Prorcentrum,Favella and Oithona nana by stations, valuable indicator species of coastal pollution by orgnic and boilogical pollutants.