Changes of Physical Characteristics of Cooked Rice by Pressure Cooking

가압취반시(加壓炊飯時) 미반(米飯)의 물성변화(物性變化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究)

  • Kim, Dong Woo (Graduate School, Chungnam Natl. Univ.) ;
  • Chang, Kyu Seob (Dept. of Food Science and Technology, Coll. of Agriculture, Chungnam Natl. Univ.)
  • Published : 1981.06.30

Abstract

This study was carried out in order to provide the basic data necessary to develop the effective and desirable cooking method on large scale for investigating the physical characteristics of cooked rices and studying optimum cooking conditions by pressure in kettle cooking rices. Milyang-15, local Japonica type and Milyang-23, high yielding Indica type major varieties cultivated in Korea were used as cooking sample after polishing 70% and 90% respectively, and the results obtained are summarized as follows. 1. The average moisture content of cooked rice by open kettle and pressure kettle method in typical households were 65.17% and 64.52%, respectively. 2. In water absorption capacity of rice grain Milyang-23 was 4.5% higher than Milyang-15, and maximum water content after absorption in Milyang-23 was 29.14%. 3. The expansion volume of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water absorption, heating temperature and time, and maximum expansion volume of cooked rice was 3.2 times greater than rice grain. 4. The gelatinization degree of cooked rice intensively concerning in hardness of rice grain was increased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it was 0.44 in Milyang-23 and 0.64 in Milyang-15 under the optimum cooking conditions as 160% water-to-rice ratio, $0.2kg/cm^2$ cooking pressure and 25 minutes cooking time. 5. The hardness of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 2.35kg/wt in 90% polished Milyang-23 and 2.0kg/wt in 90 polished Milyang-15 under optimum cooking conditions. For maintaining the same level of hardness of cooking rice Milyang-23 required 25% much more water than Milyang-15. 6. The elasticity of cooked rice was changed proportionally by water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time, and it appeared 19.2mm and 15.7mm in 90% polished Milyang-15 and Milyang-23 respectively. 7. The gumminess of cooked rice was decreased as water-to-rice ratio, heating temperature and time increased, and it showed 60 and 73 in 90% polished Milyang-23 and Milyang-15, respectively. 8. The optimum cooking time on differerent pressure in kettle took 25 minutes at $0.2kg/cm^2$, 20 minutes at $0.4kg/cm^2$, 15 minutes at $0.6kg/cm^2$, and 10 minutes at $0.8kg/cm^2$.

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