Variation in Cartenoid Pigment and lipids of the Arkshell, (Anadara broughtonii) according to the Environmental Factors of the Growing Area

서식환경요인에 따른 피조개육의 Carotenoid색소와 지질성분의 변화

  • Ha, Bong-Senk (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Gycongsang Natl. Univ.) ;
  • Kang, Dong-Soo (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Gycongsang Natl. Univ.) ;
  • Kim, Yung-Gwan (Dept. of Food Processing, Pusan Junior College) ;
  • Kim, Kui-Shik (Dept. of Marine Processing, Natl. Fisheries College of Yosu)
  • 하봉석 (경상대학교식품영양학과) ;
  • 강동수 (경상대학교식품영양학과) ;
  • 김용관 (부산전문대학식품가공학과) ;
  • 김귀식 (여수수산대학수산가공과)
  • Published : 1989.03.01


The seasonal variations of environmental sea water, arid carotenoid and lipid composition of reddish muscle tissue of arkshell, Anadara broughtonii in Chungmu and $Y{\check{o}}su-area$ were investigated. In the sea water, pH value, salinity, electrical conductivity of Chungmu and $Y{\check{o}}su-area$ were similar tendency, but water temperature in annual average at Chungmu-area was about $2^{\circ}C$ higher than that of $Y{\check{o}}su-area$. The concentration of nitrite-nitrogen, ammonia-nitrogen, phosphate-phosphours at Chungmu-area were slightly higher than those at $Y{\check{o}}su-area$. Meanwhile the concentration of silicate-silicious at $Y{\check{o}}su-area$ was about 2 times higher than that of Chungmu-area. The bacterial density of the sea water was ranged from 3.6 to 93/100ml for coliform and 3.0 to 15/100ml for fecal colifrom at Chungmu-area, but the coliform was ranged 7.3 to 150/100ml and the fecal coliform was ranged 3.6 to 20/100ml at $Y{\check{o}}su-area$. Among the coliform, 8.9% Escherichia coli, 33.9% Citrobacter freundii, 41.1% Enterobacter aerogenes groups were classified and 16.1% was not identified. In the hemoglobin content of reddish muscle tissue of arkshell, one from Chungmu-area was ranged from 1.1 to 2.5 g /dl and one from $Y{\check{o}}su-area$ was ranged from 1.7 to 4.4 g /dl. In total carotenoid content, 0.80 to 1.28mg/100 g muscle was in Chungmu-area and 0.45 to 0.99mg/100 g muscle was in $Y{\check{o}}su-area$. Among the carotenoid compositions, pectenolone content was 63.0% in annual average from Chungmu area and 59.6% from $Y{\check{o}}su-area$, 6.5% from Chungmu area and 18.9% from $Y{\check{o}}su-area$ in ${\beta}-carotene$, 9.9% from Chungmu-area and 9.1% from Yosu-area in pectenoxanthin, 11.2% from Chungmu-area and 5.2% from $Y{\check{o}}su-area$ in diatoxanthin monoester were observed. In the seasonal variation for the major carotenoids, the content of pectenolone was continuously incresedbefore spawning period and showed the maximum in July, but decresed after spawning period. Diatoxanthin monoester was gradually incresed during all growing period from March to next January. And ${\beta}-carotene$ was decresed before spawning period and showed the maximum in July but incresed after spawning period. The major fatty acids of total lipid and fractionated lipid classes from total lipid namely neutral-, glyco- and phospholipid were $C_{16:0},\;C_{18:1},\;C_{22:6},\;C_{20:2},\;C_{18:2},\;C_{20:5}\;and\;C_{18:3}$ acid in the muscle tissue of arkshell. The content of neutral lipid showed about 2 times higher than polar lipid in the muscle tissue of arkshell from both Chungmu and, $Y{\check{o}}su-area$. The content of total and neutral lipid was decresed during spawning period. In the seasonal variation for fatty acid compositions, the content of polyenenoic acid in total and neutral lipid was decresed and saturated acid was incresed. On contrary, polyenoic acid in glyco and phospholipid was incresed and saturated acid was decresed during spawning period from July to September. The sterol composition in total lipid were mainly consisted of cholesterol, campesterol, brassicasterol and ${\beta}-sitosterol$. Especially, the rate of content in cholesterol showed decrese during spawning period butcampesterol showed increse from March to November.