Studies on the Propagation of the Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan) Reared in the Laboratory 2. Life History and Seedling Production

담수산 새우, Macrobrachium nipponense (De Haan)의 증${\cdot}$양식에 관한 생물학적 기초연구 2. 생활사 및 종묘생산에 관한 연구

  • KWON Chin-Soo (The Institute for Biological Production Research Dong Eui University) ;
  • LEE Bok-Kyu (The Institute for Biological Production Research Dong Eui University)
  • 권진수 (동의대학교 생물생산연구소) ;
  • 이복규 (동의대학교 생물생산연구소)
  • Published : 1992.05.01

Abstract

Life cycle and seed production of the freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, were studied and the results are as follows : 1. Larval development : Embryos hatched out as zoea larvae of 2.06 mm in mean body length. The larvae passed through 9 zoea stages in $15{\~}20$ days and then metamorphosed into postlarvae measuring 5.68 mm in mean body length. Each zoea stage can be identified based on the shapes of the first and second antennae, exo- and endopodites of the first and second pereiopods, telson and maxillae. 2. Environmental requirements of zoea larvae : Zoea larvae grew healthy when fed with Artemia nauplii. Metamorphosing rate was $65{\~}72{\%}$ at $26{\~}28\%$ and $7.85{\~}8.28\%_{\circ}Cl.$. The relationship between the zoeal period (Y in days) and water temperature (X in $^{\circ}C$) is expressed as Y=46.0900-0.9673X. Zoeas showed best survival in a water temperature range of $26{\~}32^{\circ}C$ (optimum temperature $28^{\circ}C$), at which the metamorphosing rate into postlarvae was $54{\~}72\%$ The zoeas survived more successfully in chlorinity range of $4.12{\~}14.08{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$, (optimum chlorinity $7.6{\~}11.6\;{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$.), at which the metamorphosing rate was $42{\~}76{\%}$. The whole zoeal stages tended to be longer in proportion as the chlorinity deviated from the optimum range and particularly toward high chlorinity. Zoeas at all stages could not tolerate in the freshwater. 3. Environmental requirements of postlarvae and juveniles : Postlarvae showed normal growth at water temperatures between $24{\~}32^{\circ}C$ (optimun temperature $26{\~}28^{\circ}$. The survival rate up to the juvenile stage was $41{\~}63{\%}$. Water temperatures below $24^{\circ}C$ and above $32^{\circ}$ resulted in lower growth, and postlarvae scarcely grew at below $17^{\circ}C$. Cannibalism tended to occur more frequently under optimum range of temperatures. The range of chlorinity for normal growth of postlarvae and juveniles was from 0.00 (freshwater) to $11.24{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$, at which the survival rate was $32{\~}35\%$. The postlarvae grew more successfully in low chlorinities, and the best growth was found at $0.00\~2.21{\%_{\circ}}Cl.$. The postlarvae and juveniles showed better growth in freshwater but did not survive in normal sea water. 4. Feeding effect of diet on zoea Ilarvae : Zoea larvae were successfully survived and metamorposed into postlarvae when fed commercial artificial plankton, rotifers, and Artemia nauplii in the aquaria. However, the zoea larvae that were fed Artemia nauplii and reared in Chlorella mixed green water showed better results. The rate of metamorphosis was $68\~{\%}75$. The larvae fed cow live powder, egg powder, and Chlorella alone did not survive. 5. Diets of postlarvae, juveniles and adults : Artemia nauplii and/or copepods were good food for postlarvae. Juveniles and adults were successfully fed fish or shellfish flesh, annelids, corn grain, pelleted feed along with viscera of domestic animals or fruits. 6. Growth of postlarvae, juveniles and adults : Under favorable conditions, postlarvae molted every five or six days and attained to the juvenile stage within two months and they reached 1.78 cm in body length and 0.17 g in body weight. The juveniles grew to 3.52 cm in body length and 1.07 g in body weight in about four months. Their sexes became determinable based on the appearance of male's rudimental processes (a secondary sex character) on the endopodites of second pereiopods of males. The males commonly reached sexual maturity in seven months after attaining the postlarvae stage and they grew to 5.65 cm in body length and 3.41 g in body weight. Whereas the females attained sexual maturity within six to seven months, when they measured 4.93 cm in body length and 2.43 g in body weight. Nine or ten months after hatching, the males grew $6.62{\~}7.14$ cm in body length and $6.68{\~}8.36$ g in body weight, while females became $5.58{\~}6.08$ cm and $4.04{\~}5.54$ g. 7. Stocking density : The maximum stocking density in aquaria for successful survival and growth was $60{\~}100$ individuals/$\ell$ for zoeas in 30-days rearing (survival rate to postlarvae, $73{\~}80{\%}$) ; $100{\~}300$ individuals/$m^2$ for postlarvae of 0.57 cm in body length (survival rate for 120 days, $78{\~}85{\%}$) ; $40{\~}60$ individuals/$m^2$ for juveniles of 2.72 cm in body length (survival rate for 120 days, $63{\~}90{\%}$) : $20{\~}40$ individuals/$m^2$ for young prawns of 5.2 cm in body length (survival rate for 120 days, $62\~90{\%}$) ; and $10\~30$ individuals/$m^2$ for adults of 6.1 cm in body length (survival rate for 60 days, $73\~100{\%}$). The stocking density of juveniles, youngs and adults could be increased up to twice by providing shelters.

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