• Choe, Geon H. (Department of Mathematics, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)
  • Published : 1994.10.01


Let ($X, \Beta, \mu$) be a measure space with the $\sigma$-algebra $\Beta$ and the probability measure $\mu$. Throughouth this article set equalities and inclusions are understood as being so modulo measure zero sets. A transformation T defined on a probability space X is said to be measure preserving if $\mu(T^{-1}E) = \mu(E)$ for $E \in B$. It is said to be ergodic if $\mu(E) = 0$ or i whenever $T^{-1}E = E$ for $E \in B$. Consider the sequence ${x, Tx, T^2x,...}$ for $x \in X$. One may ask the following questions: What is the relative frequency of the points $T^nx$ which visit the set E\ulcorner Birkhoff Ergodic Theorem states that for an ergodic transformation T the time average $lim_{n \to \infty}(1/N)\sum^{N-1}_{n=0}{f(T^nx)}$ equals for almost every x the space average $(1/\mu(X)) \int_X f(x)d\mu(x)$. In the special case when f is the characteristic function $\chi E$ of a set E and T is ergodic we have the following formula for the frequency of visits of T-iterates to E : $$ lim_{N \to \infty} \frac{$\mid${n : T^n x \in E, 0 \leq n $\mid$}{N} = \mu(E) $$ for almost all $x \in X$ where $$\mid$\cdot$\mid$$ denotes cardinality of a set. For the details, see [8], [10].