The current status of fumonisin toxicosis in domestic animals: A review

가축의 fumonisin 중독증에 대한 최근 연구 동향 : 종설

  • Lim, Chae-woong (Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Illinois) ;
  • Rim, Byung-moo (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chonbuk National University)
  • Received : 1995.02.13
  • Published : 1995.04.30

Abstract

FBs, secondary metabolites of several species of Fusaria, especially Fusarium moniliforme and F proliferatum, are commonly contaminated in com and other food grains throughout the world. Only recently identified, these mycotoxins have been associated field outbreaks of ELEM in horses and PPE in pigs. Currently, naturally or experimentally induced FB toxicosis has been studied in poultry, ruminants and rabbits. Poultry fed FB showed decreased growth rate, performance, and immune competence, as well as embryopathic, and embryocidal effects, and ricktes. Ruminants seem to be relatively less susceptible to FBs than other doestic animal. FB toxicosis reveals that liver is a target organ in all species, although other organs are affected in a species specific manner. Recently, the main target organs for $FB_1$ toxicity in rabbits was shown to be the kidney. Even low concentrations of FBs are likely to be a problem for animal health. A current study being conducted showed that feed containing low level of $FB_1$ reduces the ability of pulmonary intravascular macrophages in pig to clear blood-borne particles which would increase the susceptibility of animals to bacterial disease. The mechanism of FB toxicity remains unknown, but may be related to altered sphingolipid biosynthesis by inhibiting sphinganine N-acyltransferase. Elevations of serum and tissue SA:SO ratio have been observed in horse, pig, chicken, turkey, and rabbit, which could could serve as in effective biomarker for consumption of FB-containing feeds. There is limited information detailing dose-effect relationships either from field cases or in the laboratory. More research on the factors, including the prevalence and tolerance levels of FBs in feedstuffs that cause domestic animal disease associated with FBs, is urgently needed.