Identification of Phosphatidylcholine-Phospholipase D and Activation Mechanisms in Rabbit Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

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The present study showed that receptor-mediated activation of rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells by angiotensin II, the $Ca^{2+}$ ionophore A23187, or the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) all stimulated phospholipase D (PLD). This was demonstrated by the increased formation of phosphatidic acid, and in the presence of 0.5% ethanol, phosphatidylethanol (PEt) accumulation. Angiotensin II leads to a rapid increase in phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid formation preceeded the formation of diacylglycerol. This result suggests that some phosphatidic acid seems to be formed directly from phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzed by Pill. On the other hand, EGTA substantially attenuated angiotensin II and A23187-induced PEt formation, and when the cells were pretreated with verapamil angiotensin II-induced Pill activation was completely abolished. These results provide the evidence that calcium ion influx is essential for the agonist-induced Pill activation. In addition, staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, strongly inhibited PMA-induced PEt formation, but was ineffective on angiotensin II-induced PEt accumulation. $GTP{\gamma}S$ also stimulates PEt formation in digitonin-permeabilized cells, but pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin failed to suppress angiotensin II-induced PEt formation. From these results, we conclude that in the rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells the mechanisms of angiotensin II- and PMA-induced Pill activation are different from each other and mediated via a pertussis toxin-insensitive trimeric G protein.