The Effect of Diabetes, Gestational Diabetes or Pre-eclampsia on Urinary Protein and Mineral Excretion during Pregnancy

  • Joo, Eun-Jung (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Woosuk University) ;
  • Janet C. King (Dept. of Nutritional Sciences, University of California)
  • Published : 1997.09.01


Thirteen healthy control, 13 pre-eclamptic, 7 diabetic(DM) and 12 gestational diabetic(GDM) pregnant women participated in a study ofthe interrelationships between the levels of protein, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc and copper in urine. Urinary protein, magnesium and copper levels were significantly higher (p<0.0005, p<0.0003, p<0.005 respectively) in pre-eclamptic women than those of control, DM and GDM women. Urinary zinc excretion in pre-eclamptic women (1.61 mg/g creatinine) was higher than that of DM women (0.81mg/g creatinine); urinary zinc losses of control and GDM women were wre between the other two rups. The GDM women excreted significantly ore phosphorus in their urine in comparison to control and preeclamptic women (p<0.02), but this was not seen in DM women. Among the DM women, urinary protein excretion was positively correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin(r=0.940) and fasting blood glucose concentration (r=0.889). Urinary zinc excretion also was correlated with glycosylated hemoglobin (r=0.853) and fasting blood glucose (r=0.956). In the GDM and pre-eclamptic women there were also significant correlations between urinar calcium and magnesium (r=0.857, r=0.749 respectively) and between urinary protein and copper(r=0.638, r=0.778 respectively).