Effects of Diets on Serum and Liver Lipid Levels and Fatty Acid Composition of Liver Phospholipids in Rats

  • Published : 1997.12.01

Abstract

Serum and liver lipid levels and fatty acid composition of liver phospolipids (PL) were investigated in 36 rats which consumed either one of five different dietary fats or a high carbohydrate diet for 4 weeks. As the sources of five dietary fats, concentrated cicosapentaenoic acid(EPA), fish oil (FO), perilla oil(PO), corn oil(CO) and beef tallow (BT) were provided to the rats. As a control group, cron starch (CS) replaced dietary fat. The FO group showed lower serum total cholesterol (TC), high density lipiprotein cholesterol(HDL-C) and serum PL levels than those of the CO group(p<0.05). There were no significant differences in serum TC and serum HDL-C levels between the polyunsatured fatty acid(PUFA) groups and the EPA, FO and PO groups. The CS group showed the highest level serum TC. Compared with the CS group, both the EPA and CO groups showed significantly lower atherogenic indices(AI). However, there were no significant differences in AI among different dietary fat groups. No significant differences in liver triglyceride (TG) , TC and PL levels were detected among the six experimental groups. Phosphatidylcholine(PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine(PE) composed 30-40% and 15-20% of total liver PL, respectively. The fatty acid composition of liver PC and PE reflected dietary fatty acid composition . Compared to the different dietary fat based diets used in our study, the high carbohydrate diet had the most adverse effects on serum lipid profiles. However, we can not conclude from this result that long chain n-3 PUFA diets such as the EPA and FO based diets have more beneficial effects on serum lipid profiles than n-6 PUFA diet such as the CO based diet or shorter chain n-3 PUFA diets like the PO based diet.

References

  1. Am J Clin Nutr v.36 The effects of variations in dietary fatty acid in the fatty acid composition of erythrocyte phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine in human infants Putnam,J.C.;Carlson,S.E.;De Voe P.W.;Barness,L.A.
  2. Nutr Today v.23 N-3 fatty acids in growth and development and in health and disease : Part 1 : The role of n-3 fatty acids in growth and development Simopoulus.A.P.
  3. Metabolism v.32 The comparative reductions of the plasma lipids and lipoproteins by dietary polyunsaturated fats : Salmon oil versus vegetable oils Harris,W.S.;Connor,W.E.;McMurry,M.P.
  4. Annu Rev Nutr v.10 Effects of n-3 fatty acids on lipid metabolism Nestel,P.J.
  5. J Nutr v.109 Regulation by dietaty fats of 3-hydroxy-3-methyl glutaryl CoA reductase in rat liver Ide,T.;Tanaka,T.;Sugano,M.
  6. N Engl J Med v.318 Cardiovascular effects of n-3 fatty acids Leaf,A.;Weber,P.C.
  7. Nutr Res v.9 Effect of menhaden oil and various seed oils on serum lipids and lipoproteins in rabbits Nelson,G.J.;Kelley,D.S.;Schmidt,P.C.;Serrato,C.M.;Lindgren,F.T.
  8. CRC Handbook of Eicosanoids : Prostaglandins and related lipids v.1 Uptake and release of eicosanoid precursors from phospholipids and other pools: platelets Holmson,H.;Brenner,R.R.(ed.)
  9. Clin Chem v.19 Quantitative determination of serum triglycerides by use of enzymes Bucolo,G.;David,H.
  10. Clin Chim Acta v.20 Enzymatic determination of total cholesterol Allain,C.C.;Poon,L.S.;Clan,C.S.G.;Richmond,W.
  11. Clin Chem Acta v.79 A new enzymatic method for determination of serum choline-containing phospholipids Takayama,M.;Itoh,S.;Nagasaki,T.;Tanimizu,I.
  12. Can J Biochem Physiol v.37 The determination of fat extract process Bligh,E.G.;Dyer,W.J.
  13. J Biol Chem v.234 Phosphorus Assay in column chromatography Bartletts,G.R.
  14. Clin Chim Acta v.22 A colorimetric method for estimating serum triglycerides Fletcher,M.J.
  15. Basic biochemical methods Determination of cholesterol in the lipid fraction Alexander,R.R.;Griffiths,J.M.;Wilkinson,M.L.
  16. J Lipid Res v.5 Preparation of fatty acid methylesters and dimethylacetals from lipid with boron fluoride methanol Morrison,W.R.;Smith,L.M.
  17. Am J Clin Nutr v.51 N-3 fatty acids of marine origin lower systolic blood pressure and triglycerides but raise LDL-cholesterol compared with n-3 and n-6 fatty acids from plants Kestin,M.;Clifton,P.;Bellin,G.B.;Nestel,P.J.
  18. N Engl J Med v.312 Reduction of plasma lipids, lipoproteins and apoproteins by dietary fish oils in patients with hypertriglyceridemia Phillipson,B.E.;Rothrock,P.W.;Conner,W.E.;Harris,W.S.;Ⅱ-lingworth,D.R.
  19. Kor J Nutr v.26 Effects of dietary lipid sources and levels on Lecithin : Cholesterol Acyltransferase activity and cholesterol metabolism in rats Lee,J.J.;Han,I.K.;Choi,Y.J.;Kang,J.S.;Chang,Y.S.
  20. Kor J Nutr v.24 Dietary fatty acids and blood cholesterol Hayes,K.C.;Khosla,P.;Pronczuk,A.;Lindsey,S.
  21. Br J Nutr v.50 A comparison of the influence of plasma lipids and platelet function of supplements of ω-3 and ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids Sanders,T.A.B;Hochland,M.C.
  22. J Lipid Res v.34 Decreased binding of apo A-1 to phosphatidylcholine monolayers containing 22 : 6(ω3) in the Sn-2 position Parks,J.S.;Thuren,T.Y.
  23. Polyunsaturated fatty acids and eicosanoids champaign v.Ⅲ Effects of polyenoic fatty acids(n-3) on lipids and lipoprotein metabolism Nesetel,P.;Topping,D.;Marsh,J.;Lands,W.E.M.(ed.)
  24. Kor J Nutr v.27 Effects of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid on serum and liver lipids patterns of male rat Chung,Y.J.;Park,J.S.;Park,H.J.;Chang,Y.K.
  25. J Nutr v.110 Reduction of lipogenic enzymes by shellfish triglycerides in rat liver Iritani,N.;Fukuda,E.;Inoguchi,K.;Tsubosaka,M.;Tashiro,s.
  26. J Nutr v.121 Lipid metabolism responses in rats fed beef tallow, native or randomized fish oil and native or randomized peanut oil Schrijver,R.D.;Vermeulen,D.;Viaene,E.
  27. Metabolism v.36 Relative activity of unsaturated fatty acid metabolic pathways in humans Siguel,E.N.;Maclure,M.
  28. Lipids v.27 The effect of dietary supplementation with eicosapentaenoic acid on the phospholipid and fatty acid composition of erythrocyte of marmoset Gibson,R.A.;Neumann,M.A.;Burnard,S.L.;Rinald,J.A.;Patten,G.S.;McMurchie,E.J.
  29. Biochim Biophy Acta v.779 The modification of mammalian polyunsaturated fatty acid composition in relation to membrane fluidity and function Stubbs,C.D.;Smith,A.D.
  30. Nutr Res v.11 Phospholipid fatty acid composition and respiratory properites of heart and liver mitochondria from rats fed with or deprived of linolenic acid Astrong,P.O.;Chevalier,J.
  31. Atherosclerosis v.40 The total cholesterol/HDL cholesterol ratio : A suitable Ayherogenesis Index Malaspina,J.P.;Bussiere,H.;L.E. Calve G.
  32. Korean J Nutr v.30 Effects of dietary fatty acids on serum lipids and fatty acid composition of serum phospholipids in men Oh,E.J.;Kwon,J.S.;Chang,Y.K.
  33. Am J Clin Nutr v.61 Differences exist in the relationships between dietary linoleic and α-linolenic acids and their respective long-chain metabolites Mantzioris,E.;James,M.J.;Gibson,R.A.;Cleland,L.G.
  34. Am J Clin Nutr v.62 Incorporation of dietary n-3 fatty acids into the fatty acids of human adipose tissue and plasma lipid classes Leaf,D.A.;Connor,W.E.;Barstad,L.;Sexton,G.