The Geochemical Characteristics of the River Water in the Han River Drainage Basin

한강수계분지내 하천수의 지구화학적 특성

  • 서혜영 (이화여자대학교 과학교육과) ;
  • 김규한 (이화여자대학교 과학교육과)
  • Published : 1997.09.01


To investigate geochemical characteristics and the sources of the dissolved ion species in the river water in the Han river drainage basin, samples were collected at 60 sites from the Han river drainage basin. The data for. pH, conductivity, TDS (total dissolved solid), temperature, and concentrations of dissloved ions were obtained as follows : (1) The geochemical characteristics of the surface water in the South and North Han river drainage basins are mainly controlled by bed rock geology in the drainage basin and in the main stream of the Han river considerably affected by anthropogenic pollution. The South Han river water samples have high concentrations of $Ca^{2+}$ (ave. 15.42 ppm), $Mg^{2+}$ (ave. 2.74 ppm), HC $O_3$$^{[-10]}$ (ave. 51.9 ppm), which evidently indicates that the bed rock geology in a limestone area mainly controls the surface water chemistry. The concentration of S $O_4$$^{2-}$ is remarkably high (SHR10-2 : 129.9 ppm) because of acid mine drainage from the metal and coal mines in the upper reaches of the South Han river. (2) The South Han river and the North Han river join the Han river. in the Yangsuri, Kyounggido and flow through Seoul metropolitan city. The mixing ratio is about 60:40 at the meeting point (sample number HRl0). (3) The result of factor analysis suggests that the pollution factor accounts for about 79% and the bed rock type factor accounts for about 7% of the data variation. This means that the geochemical characteristics of the Han river water mainly controlled by anthropogenic pollution in the South Han river and main stream of the Han river drainage basin. (4) The chemical data for four tributaries such as the Wangsukcheon, the Tancheon, the Zunuangcheon, and the Anyangcheon show that the concentration of pollution elements such as N $O_2$, C $l^{-}$, P $O_4$$^{3-}$, S $O_4$$^{2-}$ and Mn are high due to municipal waste disposal.