Analysis of p53 and Retinoblasoma(Rb) Gene Polymorphisms in Relation to Lung Cancer in Koreans

한국인 폐암 환자에 대한 p53 및 Rb유전자의 다형성 분석

  • Lee, Kyung-Sang (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Sohn, Jang-Won (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Yang, Suck-Chul (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Yoon, Ho-Joo (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Shin, Dong-Ho (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Park, Sung-Soo (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Lee, Jung-Hee (Department of Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Lee, Chun-Geun (Department of Genetics, College of Medicine, Hanyang University) ;
  • Cho, Youl-Hee (Department of Genetics, College of Medicine, Hanyang University)
  • 이경상 (한양대학교 의과대학 내과학 교실) ;
  • 손장원 (한양대학교 의과대학 내과학 교실) ;
  • 양석철 (한양대학교 의과대학 내과학 교실) ;
  • 윤호주 (한양대학교 의과대학 내과학 교실) ;
  • 신동호 (한양대학교 의과대학 내과학 교실) ;
  • 박성수 (한양대학교 의과대학 내과학 교실) ;
  • 이정희 (한양대학교 의과대학 내과학 교실) ;
  • 이춘근 (한양대학교 의과대학 유전학 교실) ;
  • 조율희 (한양대학교 의과대학 유전학 교실)
  • Published : 1997.06.30

Abstract

Background : The p53 and retinoblastoma(Rb) tumor suppressor genes are associated with the pathogenesis of several types of human cancer. Substantial proportion of the primary lung cancers or cell lines have been reported to have the p53 and/or the Rb gene mutations. But, so far there is no report on the analysis of the Rb gene polymorphism as one of the genetic susceptibility marker. This study was undertaken to establish the gene frequencies of the polymorphic genotypes of the p53 and Rb genes in Koreans to evaluate the possible involvement of these genotypes as a risk factor of lung cancer. Methods : In this study 145 controls without previous and present tumor history and 128 lung cancer patients were subjected to analysis. The two intragenic polymorphisms of the p53 gene(exon 4/ AccII, intron 6/MspI) and one intron 17/XbaI polymorphism of the Rb gene were analysed by the method of polymersae chain reaction- restriction fragment length polymorphisms(PCR-RFLPs). The genotype of the intron 3/16 bp repeat polymorphism of p53 was determined by PCR and direct gel electrophoresis. Results : There were no significant differences in the genotype distributions of the p53 gene between lung cancer patients and controls. But heterozygotes(Arg/Pro) of the exon 4/AccII polymorphisms were slightly over-represented than controls, especially in the Kreyberg type I cancer, which was known to be associated with smoking. The intron 3/16 bp duplication and the intron 6/MspI polymorphisms were in complete linkage disequilibrium. About 95% of the individuals were homozygotes of the common alleles both in the 16 duplication and MspI polymorphisms, and no differences were deteced in the genotype distributions between lung cancer patients and controls. Overall genotype distributions of the Rb gene polymorphisms between lung cancer patients and controls were not significantly different However, the genotype distributions in the Kreyberg type I cancer were significantly different from those of controls(p = 0.0297) or adenocarcinomas(p = 0.0008). It was noticeable that 73.4% of the patients with adenocarcinomas were heterozygotes(r1/r2) whereas 39.2% of the Kreyberg type I cancer were heterozygous at this polymorphisms. In the lung cancer patients, significant differences were also noted between the high dose smokers and low dose smokers including non-smokers(p = 0.0258). The relative risk to Kreyberg type I cancer was significantly reduced in the individuals with the genotype of r1/r2(odds ratio = 0.46, 95% C.I. = 0.25-0.86, p = 0.0124). The combined genotype distribution of the exon 4 AccII of the p53 and the intron 17 Rb gene polymorphisms in Kreyberg type I cancers were significantly different from dose of controls or adenocarcinomas. The highest odds ratio were observed in the individuals with the genotypes of Arg/Pro and r2/r2(odds ratio = 1.97,95% C.I. = 0.84-4.59) and lowest one was in the patients with Arg/Arg, r1/r2 genotype(odds ratio = 0.54, 95% C.I. = 0.25-1.14). Conclusion : The p53 and the Rb gene polymorphisms modulate the risk of smoking induced lung cancer development in Koeans. However, the exact mechanism of risk modulation by these polymorphism remains to be determined. For more discrete clarification of associations between specific genotypes and lung cancer risk, the evaluations of these polymorphisms in other ethnics and more number of patients will be needed.