Seasonal changes of nitrogen fixation and growth characteristics of Melilotus suaveolens population under different light conditions were quantitatively analyzed during growting period. Height growth of M. suaveolens population was promoted after April and the shade (site 2) showed 10-20% increase of height growth in compared with that of sunny (site 1). Seasonal changes of biomass were in creased after March, the biomass at site 1 attained 78.5% that of site 2 in May. Chlorophyll content was maintained high value from March to April but, Chlorophyll content of leaf at site 1 was decreased 11.7% compared to that of site 2 in May. The nitrogen content of each organ of M. suaveolens showed higher value in March and then decreased, the high nitrogen contents of reproductive organ were achieved at the flowering stage at site 1. The root nodule of M. suaveolens population appeared in March and showed maximum value in early June and decreased remarkably after July, the amount of nodule formation of M. suaveolens at site 2 showed higher than that of site 1. The nitrogen fixation activity of root nodule of M. suaveolens initiated with shoot growth and showed maximum value in mid April, and attained second peak in early June and then decreased after July. The total nitrogen fixation of the plant showed higher value at site 2 than that of site 1. From the overall results, M. suaveolens showed increased growth under half-shady, well ventilated barren soil than fertile sunny site.