The Role of Deductive Reasoning in Scientific Activities

과학활동에서 연역적 사고의 역할

  • Published : 1998.03.30

Abstract

What does mean the statement that scientific reasoning is logical? In this study, we clarify the logical structure of the scientific explanation, prediction and the process of hypothesis testing. To simplify and identify the structure of scientific explanations and prediction more clearly, we used syllogism and presented various concrete examples. Especially, we showed that the logical structure of scientific explanation was well reflected in dynamics. Based on this analysis, it can be said that the deficit of students' understanding of dynamics is because that many scientific activities are focused on prediction rather than explanation. To explain the process of hypothesis testing, we reinterpreted the Wason's selection task as two stages: the process of prediction of experimental phenomena based on the presented hypothesis, and the process of the hypothesis testing based on the predicted experimental phenomena. And we suggested the reason of the logical fallacy of 'affirming the consequent' in science was because that many scientific relationships between the variables is one-to-one relationship, and compared this suggestion with the Lawon's multiple hypothesis theory. To check out the effect of content on the deductive reasoning, we reviewed some researches about psychology and psychology of science. And to understand the role of deductive reasoning in student's scientific activities, we reviewed researches about the analysis of students' responses in the task of conceptual change or evaluation of evidence and so on.

Keywords

deduction;deductive reasoning;logical thinking;science education;scientific explanation;prediction;hypothesis testing