A Study of School Science Textbooks which was used from 1906 to 1915 in Korea

대한제국 후기부터 일제 식민지 초기(1906-1915년)까지 사용되었던 과학교과용 도서의 조사 분석

  • Published : 1998.03.30

Abstract

This study investigated science textbooks used from 1906 to 1915 in Korea, which is often neglected in previous researches. By doing so, more practical and specific understanding of the science education during that period can be made. It was based on the historical achieves "School Textbook List"(Vol. $4{\sim}9$) which was published by the Ministry of Education and the Government General of Chosen and other sources. The results and conclusions of the research are as follow; (1) The science textbooks which have been used from 1906 to 1915 in Korea can be categorized into three different tapes of books, either written in Chinese, or in Japanese, or in Korean. The names of science textbooks were Nature Study, Physics, Chemistry, Natural History, Hygienics, Physiology, Zoology, Botany, Astronomy, Physiography, Mineralogy, Geology. These names were much broader than those in curriculum settled by the government and rather correspond to the names of science textbooks in curriculum which settled by private schools. Therefore those science textbooks had been mainly used in private schools. Moreover almost all of the science textbooks published in Korea have started to appear after 1906. Since then many schools were newly opened and the number of students increased. It is possible to say that substantial science education in Korea established after 1906. (2) Science textbooks from 1906 to 1915 printed in Korea were controlled in their use by the Ministry of Education and the Government General of Chosen. They were the main means of government regulations, supported by Private School Ordinance, Regulations for Official Examination of textbooks in 1908 and Law of Publication in 1909. According to the result of official examination, as the time went by under the Japanese ruling of Korea, the increasing number of science textbooks were getting banned. While the science textbooks had enjoyed more freedom than the other textbooks from the control by inspection of the Government General of Chosen, the situation has been significantly changed as Japan started to intensity the control of all kinds of textbooks in Korea. Although there were a lot of copied science textbooks, 62 science textbooks printed in Korea, 72 Japanese science textbooks were used in Korea, and 40 Korean were to be engaged in science education compiling and copying science textbooks. There developments in science textbooks alone suggest that there were enormous amount of potentials in Korean science education at that time. However, all of these effects and progresses were destroyed when the sovereign authority of Korea was lost to Japan in 1910.

Keywords

"School Textbook List";science textbooks;Nature Study;Physics;Chemistry;Natural History;Hygienics;Physiology;Zoology;Botany;Astronomy;Physiography;Mineralogy;Geology;Private School Ordinance;Regulations for Official Examination of textbooks;Law of Publication;Potentials in Korean science education