Evidence for Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) as an Excitatory Neurotransmitter in Guinea-Pig Gastric Antrum

  • Kang, Tong-Mook (Department of Physiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine) ;
  • Xu, Wenxie (Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Sung-Joon (Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine) ;
  • Ahn, Seung-Cheol (Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Young-Chul (Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine) ;
  • So, In-Suk (Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine) ;
  • Park, Myoung-Kyu (Department of Physiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine) ;
  • Uhm, Dae-Yong (Department of Physiology, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Ki-Whan (Department of Physiology & Biophysics, Seoul National University College of Medicine)
  • Published : 1999.04.21

Abstract

We explore the question of whether adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter in guinea-pig gastric smooth muscle. In an organ bath system, isometric force of the circular smooth muscle of guinea-pig gastric antrum was measured in the presence of atropine and guanethidine. Under electrical field stimulation (EFS) at high frequencies (>20 Hz), NO-mediated relaxation during EFS was followed by a strong contraction after the cessation of EFS (a 'rebound-contraction'). Exogenous ATP mimicked the rebound-contraction. A known $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ antagonist, reactive blue 2 (RB-2), blocked the rebound-contraction while selective desensitization of $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ with ${\alpha},{\beta}-MeATP$ did not affect it. ATP and 2-MeSATP induced smooth muscle contraction, which was effectively blocked by RB-2 and suramin, a nonselective $P_2-purinoceptor$ antagonist. Particularly, in the presence of RB-2, exogenous ATP and 2-MeSATP inhibited spontaneous phasic contractions, suggesting the existence of different populations of purinoceptors. Both the rebound-contraction and the agonist-induced contraction were not inhibited by indomethacin. The rank orders of agonists' potency were 2-MeSATP > ATP ${ge}$ UTP for contraction and ${\alpha},{\beta}-MeATP\;{\ge}\;{\beta},{\gamma}-MeATP$ for inhibition of the phasic contraction, that accord with the commonly accepted rank order of the classical $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ subtypes. Electrical activities of smooth muscles were only slightly influenced by ATP and 2-MeSATP, whereas ${\alpha},{\beta}-MeATP$ attenuated slow waves with membrane hyperpolarization. From the above results, it is suggested that ATP acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter, which mediates the rebound-contraction via $P_{2Y}-purinoceptor$ in guinea-pig gastric antrum.