Cardioprotective Effect of Calcium Preconditioning and Its Relation to Protein Kinase C in Isolated Perfused Rabbit Heart

적출관류 토끼 심장에서 칼슘 전처치에 의한 심근보호 효과와 Protein Kinase C와의 관계

  • 김용한 (중앙대학교 의과대학 흉부외과학교실) ;
  • 손동섭 (중앙대학교 의과대학 흉부외과학교실) ;
  • 조대윤 (중앙대학교 의과대학 흉부외과학교실) ;
  • 양기민 (중앙대학교 의과대학 흉부외과학교실) ;
  • 김호덕 (중앙대학교 의과대학 조직학교실)
  • Published : 1999.07.01

Abstract

Background : It has been documented that brief repetitive periods of ischemia and reperfusion (ischemic preconditioning, IP) enhances the recovery of post-ischemic contractile function and reduces infarct size after a longer period of ischemia. Many mechanisms have been proposed to explain this process. Recent studies have suggested that transient increase in the intracellular calcium may have triggered the activation of protein kinase C(PKC); however, there are still many controversies. Accordingly, the author performed the present study to test the hypothesis that preconditioning with high concentration of calcium before sustained subsequent ischemia(calcium preconditioning) mimics IP by PKC activation. Material and Method : The isolated hearts from the New Zealand White rabbits(1.5∼2.0 kg body weight) Method: The isolated hearts from the New Zealand White rabbits(1.5∼2.0 kg body weight) were perfused with Tyrode solution by Langendorff technique. After stabilization of baseline hemodynamics, the hearts were subjected to 45-minute global ischemia followed by a 120-minute reperfusion with IP(IP group, n=13) or without IP(ischemic control, n=10). IP was induced by single episode of 5-minute global ischemia and 10-minute reperfusion. In the Ca2+ preconditioned group, perfusate containing 10(n=10) or 20 mM(n=11) CaCl2 was perfused for 10 minutes after 5-minute ischemia followed by a 45-minute global ischemia and a 120-minute reperfusion. Baseline PKC was measured after 50-minute perfusion without any treatment(n=5). Left ventricular function including developed pressure(LVDP), dP/dt, heart rate, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure(LVEDP) and coronary flow(CF) was measured. Myo car ial cytosolic and membrane PKC activities were measured by 32P-${\gamma}$-ATP incorporation into PKC-specific pepetide. The infarct size was determined using the TTC (tetrazolium salt) staining and planimetry. Data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance(ANOVA) variance(ANOVA) and Tukey's post-hoc test. Result: IP increased the functional recovery including LVDP, dP/dt and CF(p<0.05) and lowered the ascending range of LVEDP(p<0.05); it also reduced the infarct size from 38% to 20%(p<0.05). In both of the Ca2+ preconditioned group, functional recovery was not significantly different in comparison with the ischemic control, however, the infarct size was reduced to 19∼23%(p<0.05). In comparison with the baseline(7.31 0.31 nmol/g tissue), the activities of the cytosolic PKC tended to decrease in both the IP and Ca2+ preconditioned groups, particularly in the 10 mM Ca2+ preconditioned group(4.19 0.39 nmol/g tissue, p<0.01); the activity of membrane PKC was significantly increased in both IP and 10 mM Ca2+ preconditioned group (p<0.05; 1.84 0.21, 4.00 0.14, and 4.02 0.70 nmol/g tissue in the baseline, IP, and 10 mM Ca2+ preconditioned group, respectively). However, the activity of both PKC fractions were not significantly different between the baseline and the ischemic control. Conclusion: These results indicate that in isolated Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model, calcium preconditioning with high concentration of calcium does not improve post-ischemic functional recovery. However, it does have an effect of limiting(reducing) the infart size by ischemic preconditioning, and this cardioprotective effect, at least in part, may have resulted from the activation of PKC by calcium which acts as a messenger(or trigger) to activate membrane PKC.

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