Modeling the Effect of Water, Excavation Sequence and Reinforcement on the Response of Tunnels

  • Published : 1999.06.01


A powerful numerical method that can be used for modeling rock-structure interaction is the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (D D A) method developed by Shi in 1988. In this method, rock masses are treated as systems of finite and deformable blocks. Large rock mass deformations and block movements are allowed. Although various extensions of the D D A method have been proposed in the literature, the method is not capable of modeling water-block interaction, sequential loading or unloading and rock reinforcement; three features that are needed when modeling surface or underground excavation in fractured rock. This paper presents three new extensions to the D D A method. The extensions consist of hydro-mechanical coupling between rock blocks and steady water flow in fractures, sequential loading or unloading, and rock reinforcement by rockbolts, shotcrete or concrete lining. Examples of application of the D D A method with the new extensions are presented. Simulations of the underground excavation of the \ulcornerUnju Tunnel\ulcorner in Korea were carried out to evaluate the influence of fracture flow, excavation sequence and reinforcement on the tunnel stability. The results of the present study indicate that fracture flow and improper selection of excavation sequence could have a destabilizing effect on the tunnel stability. On the other hand, reinforcement by rockbolts and shotcrete can stabilize the tunnel. It is found that, in general, the D D A program with the three new extensions can now be used as a practical tool in the design of underground structures. In particular, phases of construction (excavation, reinforcement) can now be simulated more realistically.


  1. Rock Mechanics Research Report no.10 A Study of Groundwater Flow in Jointed Rock and its Influence on the Stability of Rock Masses Louis,C.
  2. Ph.D. thesis. University of Colorado at Boulder Extensions to the Discontinuous Deformation Analysis for jointed rock masses and other block systems Lin,C.T.
  3. The Art of Tunnelling Szechy,K.
  4. Ph.D. thesis. University of California Discontinuous Deformation Analysis: a new numerical model for the statics and dynamics of block systems Shi,G.H.
  5. Tatal Report on Instrumentation of UNJU Tunnel - Kyungbu High Speed Railway Project 4-3 Section Daewoo Institute of Construction Technology
  6. Ph.D. thesis, Univ. of Colorado at Boulder Modeling the Effcet of Water, Excavation Sequence and Reinforcement on the Response of Blocky Rock Masses Kim,Y.I.