Comparison of respiratory pathogenesis of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus isolates in vitro and in vivo

  • Park, Bong-kyun (College of Veterinary Medicine, Seoul National University) ;
  • Collins, James E. (Departments of Clinical and Population Sciences and Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine) ;
  • Goyal, Sagar M. (Departments of Clinical and Population Sciences and Veterinary Diagnostic Medicine) ;
  • Joo, Han-soo (College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Minnesota)
  • Received : 1999.01.15
  • Published : 1999.04.01

Abstract

Respiratory pathogenic effects of several porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus(PRRSV) isolates were examined in swine tracheal ring(STR) cultures by examining their effect on ciliary activity. One high and one low pathogenic PRRSV isolates were then selected and their pathogenicity investigated in 3-week-old conventional PRRSV-seronegative pigs. Ten pigs each were inoculated intranasally with the high or low pathogenic PRRSV isolate and 6 pigs were sham inoculated as negative controls. Two pigs each from the inoculated group and one pig each from negative control group were killed on 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days postinoculation(pI). At necropsy, degrees of gross lung lesion was determined. Turbinate, tonsil, trachea and lung samples were collected for virus isolation or histopathology. Gross lung lesions were observed mainly on 14 days PI with high and low pathogenic isolates inducing moderate diffuse and mild gross lung lesions, respectively. Inoculation of either the high or low pathogenic virus resulted in loss of cilia in ciliated epithelium of turbinates and trachea between 7 and 28 days PI. High pathogenic virus caused increased number of Goblet cells in the tracheal epithelial layer between 4 and 21 days PI whereas the low pathogenic virus did it between 14 and 28 days PI and with a lesser degree. Although both viruses produced interstitial pneumonia, the lesion was less severe with the low pathogenic virus. The isolation of high pathogenic virus from tissues and sera was earlier and more consistent than that of the low pathogenic virus. The agreement between in vitro and in vivo tests indicates that STR cultures may be used as a routine method to determine the respiratory pathogenicity of PRRSV isolates.