The Design of an Improved PID Controller by Using the Kalman Filter

칼만 필터를 이용한 개선된 PID 제어기 설계

  • Published : 2000.01.01


This paper suggests an auto-tuning I'll) control algorithm that uses the advantage of PID controller and improves the system performance. The PID gains being designed by th- conventional method are tuned through the plant parameter estimation. The Extended Kalman Filter is used for the estimation. It works as an observer and noise filter. Moreover, as the plant state and the uncertain parameter could be estimated simultaneously, the proposed algorithm is very useful in the tracking control of a system with uncertain parameter. The auto-tuning I'll) controller could maintain the system performance in the case that the plant parameters are uncertain or varying. The proposed control algorithm requires a correct estimation of the plant parameter. The controller stability and the performance is considered through the stability criteria and a servo motor model. The Kalman filter estimates the most sensitive plant parameter, which is determined by the sensitivity analysis.


Kalman Filter;Parameter Sensitivity;Improved PID Controller;Parameter Estimation


  1. Astrom K. J. and Hagglund T., 1983, 'Automatic Tuning of Simple Regulators for Phase and Amplitude Margins Specifications,' Proceeding of the IFAC Workshop on addaptive Systems in Control and Signal Processing
  2. Astrom K. J. and Hagglund T., 1983, 'A Frequency Domain Approach to Analysis and Design of Simple Feedback Loops,' Proceedings of the 23rd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, 1984
  3. Hoopes H. S., Hawk W. M. Jr. and Lewis R. C., 'A Self-Tuning Controller,' ISA Transactions, Vol. 22, pp. 49-58
  4. Grewal M. S. and Andrews A. P., 1993, Kalman Filtering Theory and Practice, Prentice Hall
  5. Eslami M., 1994, Theory of Sensitivity in Dynamic Systems, Springer-Verlag
  6. Lee J. and Cho W., and Edgar T. F., 1990, 'An Improved Technique of PID Controller Tuning from Closed loop Tests,' AIChE Journal, Vol. 36, p. 1891
  7. Schei Tor. S., 1992, 'A Method for Closed Loop Automatic Tuning of PID Controllers,' Automatica., Vol 28, No.3, pp. 587-591
  8. Kraus T. W. and Myron T. J., 1984, 'Self-Tuning PID Controller Uses Pattern Recognition Approach,' Control Engineering, pp.106-111
  9. Ziegler J. G. and Nichols J. G., 1942, 'Optimum Setting for Automatic Controllers,' Trans. ASME, Vol. 64, pp. 759-768
  10. Astrom K. J. and Hagglund T., 1984, 'Automatic Tuning of Simple Regulators with Specification on Phase and Amplitude Margins,' Automatica, Vol. 20, p. 645
  11. Yuwana T. and Seborg D. E., 1982, 'A New Method for on-line Controller Tuning,' AIChE Journal, Vol. 28, pp. 434-449
  12. Hwang D. E., 1993, 'Adaptive Dominant Pole Design of PID Controllers Based on a Single Closed loop Test,' Chem. Eng. Comm., Vol. 124, p. 131