Effect of Water Activity and Temperature on Growth, Germination, Sporulation, and Utilization of Carbon Source of Penicillium oxalicum (PENOX) as a Biocontrol Agent(BCA) for control of Clover(Trifolium repens L.)

토끼풀(Trifolium repens L.) 방제용 생물제제 Penicillium oxalicum (PENOX)의 발아, 생장, 포자생성 및 탄소원이용에 미치는 수분활성 및 온도의 영향

  • Lee, Hyang-Burm (Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology) ;
  • Kim, Chang-Jin (Korea Research Institute of Bioscience and Biotechnology)
  • 이향범 (생명공학연구소 첨단생물소재연구센터) ;
  • 김창진 (생명공학연구소 첨단생물소재연구센터)
  • Published : 2000.09.30


Penicillium oxalicum (PENOX) has shown the potential as a biocontrol agent(5CA) for control of a weed, clover(Trifolium repens L.) in grass plots. The bioherbicidal activity may be due to germinative and growth capacities and substrate availability of the agent over a range of environmental factors. The influences of different water activities($0.94{\sim}0.995\;a_w$) and temperatures($18{\sim}30^{\circ}C$) on mycelial growth, conidial germination, sporulation oil 2% MEA(malt extract agar) adjusted to different water activities with glycerol, and carbon source utilization using BIOLOG GN MicroPlate were determined in vitro. Decreases in $a_w$ on MEA caused a reduction in mycelial growth and conidial germination depending on temperature. The mycelial growth of PENOX was greatest at $30^{\circ}C/0.995\;a_w$. At some lowered water activity($0.97\;a_w$), the growth was similar between 25 and $30^{\circ}C$, and considerably decreased at lowered temperature($20^{\circ}C$). The germination rate was also greatest at $30^{\circ}C/0.995\;a_w$. Lag phase times for PENOX at $18^{\circ}C$ on MEA were >6hrs at tile whole $a_w$ level tested, and at 18 and $25^{\circ}C$ they were >18hrs and >12hrs at $0.94\;a_w$, respectively. However, its sporulation was some better at $0.97\;a_w$ than $0.995\;a_w$ or $0.94\;a_w$, and better at $20^{\circ}C$ than $30^{\circ}C$. In contrast, the number of carbon sources(niche size) utilized by PENOX varied with $a_w$ and temperature. Under some water stress condition($0.95\;a_w$), the agent utilized smaller number of carbon sources than $0.995\;a_w$ depending on temperature. The niche size at 0.995 and $0.95\;a_w$ were highest at $25^{\circ}C$, and showed 86 and 65, respectively. At $30^{\circ}C$, the niche size at 0.995 and $0.95\;a_w$ showed 84 and 50, respectively. There was no carbon source utilized by PENOX at $0.90\;a_w$ regardless of temperature. These information of tile fungal ecophysiology will be useful for the effective development of BCA.