The Role of Immunostimulants in Monogastric Animal and Fish - Review -

  • Sohn, K.S. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, M.K. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Seoul National University) ;
  • Kim, J.D. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Seoul National University) ;
  • Han, In K. (Department of Animal Science & Technology, College of Agriculture & Life Sciences Seoul National University)
  • Published : 2000.08.01


Many immunostimulating substances have been developed to improve immunity of domestic animals, although their exact mode of action and effects are not clearly defined, and they are now widely used in feed industry. Bacterial lipopolysaccharides, called endotoxin, in particular may have a profound effect not only on the immune system but also on macrophages of the reticuloendothelial system. Glucans from a variety of yeast cell wall have been shown to stimulate both specific and non-specific immune responses and to increase growth performance in pigs. Recently, there has been great interest in the role of complex carbohydrates in disease prevention and treatment. Mannanoligosaccharide is a glucomannoprotein complex derived from the cell wall of yeast. Generally, it was also known that the deficiencies of some major vitamins (vitamin A, E and C) and minerals (chromium and selenium) lead to impaired immune system and, as a result, immune function is depressed and recovery delayed. On the other hand, many researchers suggested that one possible reason for the superior performance observed in pigs fed plasma protein may be because of the presence of biologically active plasma proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins) which are known to contribute to the health of the starter pig. And, immunoglobulins present in plasma protein have been implicated as contributing to the overall immunocompetence of the newborn pig. Other immunostimulants, lactoferrin and lysozyme, mainly found in milk and egg white, have been known as having bacteriocidal and bacteriolytic effect. When considering practical use of immunostimulants, the concept of using immunostimulants is new to many people and, in most cases, it is poorly understood how and why such compounds act, and how they should be used in practice. Therefore, in order to clarify the reason for discrepancies in results, special attention should be paid to the dose/response relationship of immunostimulants and the duration of the effect.


Immunostimulants;Lipopolysaccharides;${\beta}-Glucan$;Mannanoligosaccharides;Vitamin;Mineral;Blood Plasma

Cited by

  1. Prebiotics in aquaculture: a review vol.16, pp.2, 2010,
  2. Effects of dietary mannan oligosaccharide on the survival, growth, immunity and digestive enzyme activity of freshwater crayfish, Cherax destructor Clark (1936) vol.17, pp.2, 2010,
  3. Effect of short-term feeding duration of diets containing commercial whole-cell yeast or yeast subcomponents on immune function and disease resistance in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus vol.96, pp.2, 2011,
  4. (Linnaeus) fingerlings vol.96, pp.4, 2011,
  5. Use of Diet Crossover to Determine the Effects of β-glucan Supplementation on Immunity and Growth of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus vol.43, pp.3, 2012,
  6. Beta-glucan: an ideal immunostimulant in aquaculture (a review) vol.39, pp.3, 2013,
  7. Use of food waste as fish feeds: effects of prebiotic fibers (inulin and mannanoligosaccharide) on growth and non-specific immunity of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) vol.22, pp.22, 2015,
  8. (Hamilton 1822) vol.48, pp.6, 2016,
  9. ) fed bioprocessed plant-based proteins vol.23, pp.5, 2017,
  10. Linneaus, 1758) fingerling induced by Immunogen® prebiotic vol.46, pp.1, 2018,
  11. Preventive and Prophylactic Measures in Intensive Salmonid Fish Breeding – a Review vol.63, pp.4, 2015,
  12. Effects of the supplemental chromium form on performance and metabolic profile in laying hens exposed to heat stress vol.97, pp.4, 2018,
  13. Fed a Diet Supplemented with ImmunoGen: Effects on Growth Performance, Body Composition, and Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters vol.30, pp.2, 2018,
  14. fermentation product in a commercial catfish ration on growth, immune readiness, and columnaris disease susceptibility pp.1545-0805, 2018,