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Predicting In Sacco Rumen Degradation Kinetics of Raw and Dry Roasted Faba Beans (Vicia faba) and Lupin Seeds (Lupinus albus) by Laboratory Techniques

  • Yu, P. (Department of Animal Production, Institute of Land and Food Resources University of Melbourne Parkville) ;
  • Egan, A.R. (Department of Animal Production, Institute of Land and Food Resources University of Melbourne Parkville) ;
  • Leury, B.J. (Department of Animal Production, Institute of Land and Food Resources University of Melbourne Parkville)
  • Received : 2000.01.18
  • Accepted : 2000.04.12
  • Published : 2000.10.01

Abstract

Two laboratory techniques: (1) an in vitro method with two procedures for measuring protein degradabilities and (2) an in vitro method with three procedures for measuring protein solubility, were investigated to determine which laboratory techniques could most accurately predict the quantity of rumen protein degradation kinetics of legume seeds after dry roasting under various conditions, in terms of (1) rumen protein disappearance ($D_j$, where j=0, 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 h incubation), (2) rumen protein effective degradability (EDCP), (3) the parameters describing rumen degradation characteristics (the soluble fraction: S, the potentially degradable fraction: D, undegradable fraction: U, lag time: T0 and the degradation rate: Kd) and (4) rumen bypass protein (BCP), which were determined by the method accepted internationally at present, in sacco nylon bag technique using the standardized Dutch method. Feeds evaluated were the raw and dry roasted whole faba (Vicia faba) beans (WFB) and whole lupin (Lupinus albus) seeds (WLS), each was dry roasted under various conditions (at 110, 130 or $150^{\circ}C$ for 15, 30 or 45 min). In vitro protein degradability ($D_1$_Auf and $D_{24}$_Auf) were determined using the modified Aufr re method by enzymatic hydrolysis for 1 h and 24 h using a protease extracted from Streptomyces griseus in a borate-phosphate buffer. In vitro protein solubility ($bf_1$_S, $bf_2$_S, $bf_3$_S) was measured in a borate-phosphate buffer with three different procedures. Results from laboratory techniques (in vitro) were correlated and linearly regressed with in sacco results. Of the three procedures of in vitro protein solubility evaluated, none of them could predict in sacco results with good precision. The highest Pearson correlation coefficient ($R^2$) was less than 0.50. Of two procedures of in vitro protein degradability studied, the $D_1$_Auf values were closely correlated with in sacco parameters: Kd, EDCP and %BCP with high R' values: 0.82, 0.85 and 0.85, respectively, and closely correlated with in sacco $D_j$ at 2, 4, 8 and 12 h rumen incubation with high $R^2$ values: 0.83, 0.91, 0.93 and 0.83, respectively. The $D_{24}$_Auf values could not predict in sacco results. The highest $R^2$ value was less then 0.40. These results indicated that in vitro protein solubility measured in borate-phosphate failed to identify differences in the rate and extent of protein degradation of legume seeds after dry roasting under various conditions and thus should not be used to predict rumen degradation, particularly for heat processed feedstuffs. But in vitro protein degradability using the modified Aufr re method by enzymatic hydrolysis for 1 h or possibly an intermediate time (>1 h and <24 h) is a promising laboratory procedure to detect effectiveness of dry roasting legume seeds on rumen protein degradation characteristics and could be used as a simple laboratory method to predict the rate and extent of protein degradation in the rumen in sacco with high accuracy. The equations to predict EDCP, Kd and BCP of dry roasted legume seeds (WLS and WFB) under various conditions are as follow: For both: EDCP (%)=-1.37+1.06*$D_1$_Auf ($R^2=0.85$, p<0.01). For both: Kd (%/h)=-21.81+0.49*$D_1$_Auf ($R^2=0.82$, p<0.01). For both: %BCP=103.37-1.07*$D_1$_Auf ($R^2=0.85$, p<0.01).

Keywords

In Sacco Rumen Degradation;In Vitro Degradability;In Vitro Protein Solubility;Dry Roasting;Legume Seeds