In order to increase ginsenoside content, to reduce chemical change, to shorten extracting procedure, new methods of extraction and fractionation of crude ginseng saponin were established and compared for their chemical composition. Those are hot MeOH extraction/n-BuOH fractionation (BuOH method) and hot MeOH extraction/Diaion HP-20 adsorption/MeOH elution (HP-20 method), which are already known methods, and additional three new methods: hot MeOH extraction/cation AG 50W $adsorption/H_2O$ elution/n-BuOH extraction (AG 50W method), cool MeOH extraction/Diaion HP-20 adsorption/MeOH elution (cool extraction method) and direct extraction with EtOAc/n-BuOH (direct extraction method). AG 50W method provided a crude saponin showing the highest content of ginsenosides of 61.5% and the lowest contents of protein and free amino acids of 0.93% and 0.19%, respectively. The protein content was the highest as 14.18% in the crude saponin by HP-20 method, while free sugar content was the highest as 13.5% by BuOH method, indicating that these are factors that lower the rate of ginsenoside in crude saponins by those methods. On the other hand, it was revealed that AG 50W method produced large amount of prosapogenins during the pass through the cation exchange resin (AG 50W) column being strongly acidic. Crude saponin from direct extraction method showed relatively higher composition of ginsenoside $Rg_1$ and Re. The results suggest that contents and composition of ginsenosides and other chemical components in crude ginseng saponin greatly depend on the condition of the extraction and fractionation.
crude ginseng saponin;ginsenoside;prosapogenin