Electron Microscopic Evidence of Paraporal Crystal Inclusion Biogenesis in Bacillus sphaericus Strain 1593

  • Lee, Young-Ju (Department of Biological Sciences, Konkuk University) ;
  • Lee, Hyung-Hoan (Department of Biological Sciences, Konkuk University)
  • Published : 2001.12.01


The parasporal biogenesis of crystal inclusion during the sporulation of Bacillus sphaericus strain 1593 was observed using transmission electron microscopy. The crystal biogenesis and sporulation process involved a sequence of events talking about 10 h. The sporulation Precesses were found to be similar to previous findings. The crystal biogenesis of B. sphaericus was initiated at the start of engulfment and nearly completed by the time of exosporium formation. The crystal formation was clearly associated with the outer forespore membrane from stages III through VI, and the crystals grew from polypeptide-like chains originated from the outer forespore membrane. These observations are different from previous findings, which report no association with the forespore membrane. The crystals were located adjacent to the outer membrane of the spore until the release stage. The axes size of the bipyramidal crystal was approximately $0.25{\mu}m{\times}42{\mu}m$. During crystal biogenesis, the crystal development could be classified into four stages; initiation stage Cl (sporulation stage . III), growth stage C2 (sporulation III to V), envelopment and maturation C3 (sporulation V to V), and finally release stage C4 (sporulation Vll).


  1. J. Gen. Microbiol. v.136 Numerical classification and identification of Bacillus sphaericus including some strains pathogenic for mosquito larvae Alexander, B.;F. G. Priest
  2. Microbiol Rev. v.55 Bacillus sphaericus as a mosquito pathogen: Properties of the organism and its toxins Baumann, P.;M. A. Clock;L. Baumann;A. H. Broadwell
  3. J. Bacteriol. v.163 Purification of the larvicidal toxin of Bacillus sphaericus and evidence for high-molecular-weight precursors Baumann, P.;B. M. Unterman;L. Baumann;A. H. Broadwell;S. J. Abbene;R. D. Bowditch
  4. J. Bacteriol. v.127 Electron microscopic study of sporulation and parasporal crystal formation in Bacillus thuringiensis Bechtel, D. B.;L. A. Bulla
  5. Rev. Cytol. Biol. Veg. Bot. v.4 Ultrastructure des spores de Bacillus sphaericus apres extraction physigue D'un facteur toxique pour les larves d'Anopheles Bourgouin, C.;J. F. Charles
  6. Bacterial Protein Toxins Bacillus sphericus 2297. Purification and biogenesis of parasporal inclusions, toxic for mosquito larvae Bourgouin, C.;J.-F. Charles;A. R. Kalfon;H. de Barjac;J. E. Alouf(ed.);F. J. Fehrenbach(ed.);J. F. Freer(ed.);J. Jeljaszewicz(ed.)
  7. Bacterial Protein Toxins Bacillus sphericus 1593-4. Purification of fraction toxic for mosquito larvae Bourgouin, C.;R. Tinelli;J.-P. Bouvet;R. Pires;J. E. Alouf(ed.);F. J. Fehrenbach(ed.);J. F. Freer(ed.);J. Jeljaszewicz(ed.)
  8. J. Bacteriol. v.172 The 42- and 51-kilodalton miquirocidal proteins of Bacillus sphaericus 2362: Construction of recombinants with enhanced expression and in vivo studies of processing and toxicity Broadwell, A. H.;L. Bauman;P. Bauman
  9. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. v.52 Sporulation-associated activation of Bacillus sphaericus larvicide Broadwell, A. H.;P. Bauman
  10. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. v.139 Bacillus sphaericus asporogenous mutants: Morphology, protein pattern and larvicidal activity Charles, J.-F.;a. Kalfon;C. Bourgouin;H. de Barjac
  11. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. v.10 Parasporal inclusions in Bacillus sphaericus Davidson, E. W.;P. Myers
  12. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. v.47 Fate of Bacillus sphaericus 1593 and 2362 spores used as larvicides in the aquatic environment Davidson. E. W.;M. Urbina;J. Payne;M. S. Mulla;H. Darwazeh;H. T. Dulmage;J. A. Correa
  13. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. v.139 Another Bacillus sphaericus serotype harboring strains very toxic to mosqyito larvae: Serotype H6 de Barjac, H.;I. Thiery;V. Cosmao-Dumanoir;E. Frachon;P. Laurent;J-F. Charles;S. Hamon;J. Ofori
  14. J. Bacteriol. v.121 Fine structure of mesosomeal involvement during Bacillus sphaericus sporulation Decker, S.;S. Maier
  15. Developmental Biology of the Bacteria Dworkin, M.
  16. J. Bacteriol. v.92 Fine structure of sporulation in Bacillus cereus grown in chemically defined medium Ellar, D. J.;D. G. Lundgren
  17. J. Bacteriol. v.122 Ultrastructural studies of sporulation in Bacillus sphaericus Holt, S. C.;J. J. Gauthier;D. J. Tipper
  18. Pathogenesis of Invertebate Microbiol. Disease Bacillus thuringiensis delta endotoxin: composition and activation Huber, H.;P. Kuthy;E. W. Davidson(ed.)
  19. J. Gen. Microbiol. v.130 Sporulation of Bacillus sphaericus 2297: An electron microscope study of crystal-like inclusion biogenesis and toxicity to mosquito larvae Kalfon, A.;J. F. Charles;C. Bourgouin;H. de Barjac
  20. Ann. Inst. Pasteur/Microbiol. v.138 Toxicity, viability and ultrastructure of Bacillus sphaericus 2362 spore/crystal complex used in the field Karch, S.;J.-F. Charles
  21. J. Invertebr. Pathol. v.7 Bacillus sphaericus Neide as a pathogen of moqitoes Kellen, W. R.;T. B. Clark;J. E. Lindegren;B. C. Ho;M. H. Rpgpff;S. Singer
  22. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. v.9 Characteristics of thirty-six Bacillus thuringiensis isolates and a new serovar. of Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. Kim (serotype H52) Kim, S. Y.;M. H. Kang;H. B. Choi;J. U. Lee;J.-F. Charles;V. C. Dumanoir;M.-M. Lecadet;H. H. Lee
  23. HanGuk J. Genetic Eng. v.1 Isolation of sporeless temperature-sensitive mutants of Bacillus sphaericus Kim, Y. H.;H. H. Lee
  24. Kot. J. Sppl. Microbiol. Bioeng. v.13 Isolation of conditional lethal temperature-sensitive mutants of Bacillus sphaericus Kim, Y. H.;H. H. Lee
  25. J. Ultrastruct. Res. v.10 The structure of Bacillus thuringiensis Berliner crystals Labaw, L. W.
  26. J. Virol. v.31 Isolation and initial characterizatio of temperature-sensitive mutants of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus Lee, H. H.;L. K. Miller
  27. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. v.10 In situ hybridization of white spot disease virus in experimentally infected penaeid shrimp Lee, W.-W.;B.-J. Lee;Y. Lee;Y.-S. Lee;J.-H. Park
  28. Infect. Immunity v.19 Location of a mosquito-larval toxin of Bacillus sphaericus SSⅡ-Ⅰ for mosquito larvae Myers, P.;A. A. Yousten
  29. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. v.39 Localization of a mosquito-larval toxin of Bacillus sphaericus Myers, P.;A. A. Yousten
  30. Can. J. Microbiol. v.25 Comparative studies of the mosquito-larval toxin of Bacillus sphaericus SSⅡ-Ⅰ and 1593 Myers, P.;A. A. Yousten;E. W. Davidson
  31. J. Kor. Soc. Virol. v.17 Electron microscope studies of infection and multiplication of Autographa californica nuclear polyhedrosis virus clone L-1 and ts-B1074. 1. Infection and multiplication of A. californica NPV L-1 Oh, C. K.;H. H. Lee
  32. J. Invertebr. Pathol. v.43 Insecticidal activity of the crystalline parasporal inclusions and other components of Bacillus sphaericus 1593 spore complex Payne, J. M.;E. W. Davidson
  33. J. Gen. Microbiol. v.84 The fine structure of Bacillus thuringiensis sopres with special reference to the location of crystal antigen Short, J. A. ;P. D. Walker;R. O. Thomson;H. J. Somerville
  34. Dev. Ind. Microbiol. v.15 Entomogenous bacilli against mosquitos larvae Singer S.
  35. Eur. J. Biochem. v.18 Formation of the parasporal inclusion of Bacillus thuringiensis Somerville, H. J.
  36. Adv. Biotechnol. Precesses v.3 Bacillus sphaericus: Microbiological factors related to its potential as a mosquito larvicide Yousten, A. A.
  37. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. v.446 Ultrastructural analysis of spores and parasporal crystal formed by Bacillus sphaericus 2297 Yousten, A. A.;E. Davidson