Fertility Status in Northeastern Alpine Soils of South Korea with Cultivation of Vegetable Crops

강원도 고랭지 채소 재배지의 토양 비옥도관리 현황과 전망

  • Yang, Jae-E. (Division of Biological Environment. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Cho, Byong-Ok (Division of Biological Environment. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kangwon National University) ;
  • Shin, Young-Oh (Department of Biology, Yonsei University) ;
  • Kim, Jeong-Je (Division of Biological Environment. College of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Kangwon National University)
  • Published : 2001.02.28


Total upland area for cultivating the vegetable crops in the Alpine soils of Northeastern South Korea has been extending its limit to meet the increasing demand of vegetable food in recent decades. About 70% of these alpine soils are located in over 7% of the slope and most of vegetable crops have been cultivated intensively without practicing the best management systems. Thus, soil erosion and continuous cropping system have degenerated the soil fertility and shown detrimental effects on water quality. We initiated an intensive and extensive investigation to characterize the fertility problems encountered in these uplands. Objectives of this paper were to characterize the fertility status in the Alpine soils cultivated with vegetable crops for many years and to provide the recommendations for adequate soil management measures including fertilization and erosion control. Soils in general have good drainage with textural classes of loam or sandy loam. Their topographical characteristics tended to lead them to shallow plow layers, and the steepness of the terrain created erosion hazard. Of the soils examined, about 11% of uplands over 30% gradient was found in need of an urgent reforestation. A high content of gravel and firm hardness of soil attributed to inhibit the utilization of farm machinery and plant-root development. The average soil pH 5.6 was slightly low relative to pH 5.70 of the national average. Organic matter content was high compared with 2.0% of national average, but decreased with the prolonged cultivation periods. Available $P_2O_5$ concentration was unusually high due to the consequence of over dose application with chemical and organic fertilizers. Exchangeable cations as Ca, Mg, and K were appeared to be decreased in these regions with prolonging the cultivation periods. There were no significant differences in cation exchange capacity (CEC) and electrical conductivity (EC) among locations. Heavy metal contents were mostly lower than the threshold of danger level designated by Soil Environment Conservation Law of South Korea. Results indicated that a proper countermeasure and the best management practice should be immediately implemented to conserve the top soil and fertility in the Alpine regions.

지난 2, 30년 동안에 진행되고 있는 한국인의 식생활변화와 함께 채소 작물에 대한 수요가 급격히 증가하면서 강원도 고랭지 토양이 여름 채소 재배지로 각광을 받게 되었고 그 재배 면적이 매년 확대 일로에 있다. 이 토양의 비옥도를 유지 내지는 향상시키고 적절한 관리를 기하기 위해 광범위하고 집중적인 조사와 검정을 실시하여 얻은 결과의 일부를 다음과 같이 정리할 수 있었다. 조사된 토양은 일반적으로 양토 내지는 사양토로써 배수가 양호하였으며 대부분 경사지에 놓여 있기 때문에 심할 경우 침식의 위험에 노출되게 되어 경작충이 매우 얕았으며, 이 중 30% 또는 그 이상의 경사도를 가진 토양 11%는 곧 다시 조림해야 할 정도로 농경지로써는 부적절하였다. 이미 받은 침식으로 인해 자갈 함량이 높았으며 토양의 경도 역시 식물의 뿌리 신장과 농기구 사용에 지장을 줄 정도였다. 토양의 pH는 산성화 쪽으로 진행되었고, 유기물 함량, 치환성 염기인 Ca, Mg, 그리고 K의 함량은 경작 연수가 증가함에 따라 감소하였는데 유효 인산 ($P_2O_5$)만은 농가의 퇴구비 과다 사용 결과로 인해 크게 증가하는 경향을 보였다. 양이온 치환용량(CEC)과 전기 전도도(EC)는 토양과 토양 사이에 별 차이가 없었다. 이 지역의 고랭지 토양은 아직 Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn 그리고 Ni등의 중금속 원소에 의한 토양 오염의 영향을 받지 않은 것으로 나타났다.