Changes of characteristics of livestock feces compost pile during composting period and land application effect of compost

축분 퇴비화과정 중 특성변화와 축분퇴비 이용효과

  • Jeong, Kwang-Hwa (National livestock Research Institute, RDA) ;
  • Kang, Ho (Department of Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Chung-Nam University)
  • Received : 2000.11.27
  • Accepted : 2001.01.20
  • Published : 2001.03.30


Composting of livestock feces is economic and safe process to decrease the possibility of direct leakage of organic pollutants to ecosystem from commercial and environmental point of view. This study was conducted with three different experiments related to composting of livestock feces. The purpose of experiment 1 was to investigate changes of characteristic of compost pile during composting period by low temperature in cold season. To compare composting effect of experimental compost pile and control pile exposed in cold air, experimental compost piles were warmed up by hot air until their temperatures were reached at $35^{\circ}C$. Sawdust, Ricehull and Ricestraw were mixed with livestock feces as bulking agent. The highest temperatures of compost pile during composting period were in sawdust, rice hull, rice straw, and control were $75^{\circ}C$, $76^{\circ}C$, $68^{\circ}C$, $45^{\circ}C$ respectively. Moisture content, pH, C/N and volume of compost were decreased during composting period. Experiment 2 was carried out to study utilization effect of compost by plant. A corn was cultivated for 3 years on fertilized land with compost and chemical fertilizer. The amount of harvest and nutrition value of corn were analyzed. In first year of trial, the amount of harvest of corn on land treated with compost was lower by 20% than that of land treated with chemical fertilizer. In second year, there was no difference in yield of com between compost and chemical fertilizer. In third year, the yield of com on land fertilized with compost was much more than that of land fertilized with chemical fertilizer. The purpose of experiment 3 was to estimate the decrease of malodorous gas originating from livestock feces by bio-filter. Four types of bio-filters filled with saw dust, night soil, fermented compost and leaf mold were manufactured and tested. Each bio-filter achieved 87-95% $NH_3$ removal efficiency. This performance was maintained for 10 days. The highest $NH_3$ removal efficiency was achieved by leaf mold on the first day of operation period. It reduced the concentration of $NH_3$ by about 95%. Night soil and fermented compost showed nearly equal performance of 93 to 94% for 10 days from the beginning of operation. The concentration of hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan originating for compost were equal to or less than $3mg/{\ell}$ and $2mg/{\ell}$, respectively. After passing throughout the bio-filter, hydrogen sulfide and methyl mercaptan were not detected.

경제적, 환경적 측면에서 볼 때 가축분뇨의 퇴비화는 생태계로의 유기성오염물의 직접적인 유출 위험성을 감소시킬 수 있는 저렴하고 안전한 방법이다. 본 연구에서는 가축분의 퇴비화와 관련한 세 가지 시험을 실시하였다. 시험 1은 저온기의 낮은 온도에 따른 퇴비단의 특성변화에 대한 연구를 목적으로 실시하였다. 저온에 노출된 대조구와 시험구의 퇴비화효과를 비교하기 위하여 시험구의 온도가 $35^{\circ}C$에 도달할 때까지 온풍을 공급하였다. 톱밥과 왕겨 그리고 볏짚을 수분조절재로 이용하였다. 퇴비화 기간중 퇴비단의 최고 온도는 톱밥과 왕겨, 볏짚 그리고 저온 노출구에서 각각 $75^{\circ}C$, $76^{\circ}C$, $68^{\circ}C$, $45^{\circ}C$에 달하였다. 퇴비화 기간동안 퇴비단의 수분함량과 산도, 탄질비 그리고 부피는 감소하였다. 시험 2는 작물에 의한 퇴비의 이용성을 구명하기 위하여 퇴비와 화학비료를 시용한 경작지에서 옥수수를 3년간 재배하였다. 옥수수의 수확량과 영양학적 가치를 분석하였다. 시험 1년 차에 퇴비를 시용한 구의 옥수수 수확량은 화학비료구에 비해 20%정도 적었다. 시험 2년 차에는 두 처리구 간에 차이가 없었다. 3년 차에는 퇴비구의 수확량이 더 많았다. 시험 3은 생물필터에 의한 가축분의 퇴비화시 발생되는 악취의 감소정도를 평가하기 위해 수행하였다. 톱밥, 분변토, 부숙퇴비 그리고 부엽토를 충진한 네 종류의 필터를 제작하여 시험하였다. 각각의 필터는 87~95%의 암모니아 제거율을 보였다. 이 효율은 10일 동안 유지되었다. 암모니아 최고 감소효율은 부엽토구에서 운용 1일째에 95%를 달성하였다. 분변토와 발효퇴비구의 암모니아 제거효과는 시험개시후 10일 동안 93~94%의 비슷한 수준을 보였다. 퇴비화시 발생된 황화수소와 멀캡턴 농도는 각각 $3{\sim}2mg/{\ell}$ 이하였으나 필터를 거친 후에는 검출되지 않았다.