Cytotoxic Effects of Methanol Extract and Fractions from Echinacea angustifolia on Cancer Cells

암세포에 대한 Echinacea angustifolia 순차 용매 추출물의 세포독성 효과

  • Lee, Joon-Kyoung (Department of Food & Nutrition, Kyunghee University) ;
  • Koo, Sung-Ja (Department of Food & Nutrition, Kyunghee University)
  • 이준경 (경희대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 구성자 (경희대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2002.02.01

Abstract

Echinacea is a North American native medicinal herb used traditionally for wounds, burns, snake or insect bites, colds, infections, and inflammation by indigenous Americans. We investigated the effects of the root and stem of fresh Korean-grown Echinacea angustifolia methanol extracts and fractionation extracts on the cytotoxicity against cancer cells (HL60, 3LL). The extracts were prepared by step-wise fractionation of methanol extracts of Echinacea angustifolia using hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, buthanol, and water. From the tests, root and stem parts of Echinacea showed the cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. The cytotoxie rate of the ethyl acetate fraction of the root parts showed 79% against HL60 cells at low concentration (0.125 mg/mL), and hexane fraction of the root and stem parts gradually increased as the concentration of samples increased, and the root parts showed 82% at 1.0 mg/mL concentration against HL60 cells, chloroform fraction of the root part showed 78.4% against HL60 cells and 68.4% on 3LL cells at 1.0 mg/mL concentration, water and butanol fraction of these results, it is considered that ethyl acetate fraction of the root and stem parts showed 60.1% to 77.1% against HL60 cells, after testing by MTT assay system. From these results, it is considered that ethyl acetate fraction of the Echinacea angustifolia root parts has stronger anticancer effects than any other fractions in vitro.

Keywords

Echinacea angustifolia;cytotoxic effects;HL60 cells;3LL cells

References

  1. Hobbs C. Echinacea: a literature review. HerbalGram 30: 34-48 (1994)
  2. Luettig, B., Steinmuller, C., Gifford, GE., Wagner, H. and Lohm-ann-Matthes, M-L. Marcrophage activation by the polysaccharide arabinogalactan isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 81: 669-675 (1989) https://doi.org/10.1093/jnci/81.9.669
  3. Rosler, J., Steinmuller, C., Kiderlen, A., Emmendorffer, A., Wag-ner, H. and Lohmann-Matthes M-L. Application of purified polysaccharides from cell cultures of the plant Echmacea pur-purea to mice mediates protection against systemic infections with Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans. Int. J. Immu-nopharmacol. 13: 27-37 (1991)
  4. Bauer, R., Juricic, K., Puhlmann, I. and Wagner, H. Immunologi-cal in vivo and in vitro examinations of Echinacea extracts. Drug Res. 38: 276-281 (1988)
  5. Muller-Jakic, B., Breu, W., Probstite, A., Greger, H., and Bauer, R. In vitro inhibition of cyclooxygenase and 5-lipooxygenase by alkarnides froin Echinacea and Achillea species. Planta Med. 60: 37-40 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-959404
  6. Lee, J.K. and Koo, S.J. Effects of Echinacea angustifolia metha-nol extracts on the cytotoxicity against cancer cells and anti-oxi-dant activity. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. in press
  7. Se, D., Broumand, N., Sahl, L. and Tilles, J.G. In vitro effects of echinacea and ginseng on natural killer and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity in healthy subjects and chronic fatigue syndrome or accquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. Immunophar-macology 35: 229-235 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0162-3109(96)00125-7
  8. Park, K.Y., Kim, S.H., Suh, MJ. and Chung, H.Y. In-hibitory effects of garlic on the mutagenicity in Salmonella assay system and on the growth of HT-29 human colon carcinoma cells (in Korean). Korean J, Pood Sci. Technol. 23: 370 (1994)
  9. Bauer, R., Bn-u, W., Willer, F., Wierer, M., Remiger, P. and Sch-wenker, G. In vitro inhibition of arachidonate metabolism by some alkamides and prenylated phenols. Planta Med. 55: 566-567 (1989) https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2006-962097
  10. Stimpel, M., Proksh, A., WaeneT, H. and Lohmann-Matthes, M-L. Macrophage activation and induction of macrophage cytotoxicity by purified polysaccharide fractions from the plant Echinacea purpurea. Infect. Irnmun. 46: 845-849 (1984)
  11. Li, T.S. and Wang, L.C.H. Physiological components and health effects of ginseng, Echinacea, and sea buckthorn, In: Functional Foods: Biochemical and Processing Aspects; Maza, G. (eds), Technomic Publishing: Lancaster, PA, USA 329-356 (1998)
  12. Scudiero, D.A., Shoemaker, R.H., Paull, K.D., Monks, A., Tier-ney, S., Nofziger, T.H., Currens, M.J., Seniff, D. and Boyed, M.R. Evaluation of a soluble tetrazolium/formazan assay for cell growth and drug sensitivity in culture using human and other tumor cell lines. Cancer Res. 48:4827 (1988)
  13. Bauer, R. and Wagner, H. Echinacea species as potential immun-ostimulatory drugs, In economic and medicinal plant research. Vol. 5, pp. 253-321 Waener, H., Famsworth, N.R. (eds.), Aca-demic Press Inc. San Diego, CA, USA (1991)
  14. Barbara, G. Campling, J.P., Peter, R. Galbraith and Susan, P.C. Use of the MTT assay for rapid determination of chemosensitiv-ity of human leukemic blast cells. Leukemia Res. 12: 823-831 (1988) https://doi.org/10.1016/0145-2126(88)90036-7
  15. Bauer, R. Echinacea containing drugs - Effects and active constit-uents. Z. Arztliche Fortbild. 90: 111-115 (1996)
  16. Fischer, S.M., Leyton, L.J., Lee, MLL., Locnislcar, M., Belury, M.A. and Maldve, R.E. Differentiat effects of dietaty linoleic acid on mouse skin-turnor promotion and mammary carcinogenesis. Cancer Res. (Suppl). 52: 2049-2056 (1992)
  17. Linert, D., Anklam, E. and Panne, U. Gas chromatography-mass spectral analysis of roots of Echinacea, species and classification by multivariate data analysis. Phytochem. Anal. 88-98 (1998)
  18. Bauer, R., Remiger, R, Juricic, K. and Wagner, H. Influence of Echinacea extracts on phagocytotic activity. Z. Phytother. 10: 43-48 (1989)
  19. Han, E.J., Roh, S.B. and Bae, S.J. Cytotoxicity of Daucus carota L. on various cancer Cells. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. Nutr. 29(1): 153-160 (2000)
  20. Jnokuchi, J., Jimbo, M., Kumamoto, Y., Shimeno, H. and Nagam-atsu, A. Expression of ganglioside GM3 and H-2 antigens in clones with different metastatic and growth potentials isolated from Lewis lung carcinoma (3LL) cell line. Clin. Exp. Metastasis 11:27-36 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00880063
  21. Barrett, B., Kiefer, D. and Rabago, D. Assessing the risks and benefits of herbal medicine: An overview of scientific evidence Altem. Ther. 5: 40-49 (1999)
  22. Hobbs, C. Echinacea: The Immune Herb. Botanica Press (1995)
  23. Burger, R.A.. Torres, A.R.. Warren, R.P., Caldwell, V.D. and Hughes, B.G. Echinacea-induced cytokine production by human macrophages. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 19: 371-379 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0192-0561(97)00061-1
  24. Tragni, E., Galli, C.L., Tubaro, A., Del, N.P. and Della, L.R. Antiinflammatoiy activity of Echinacea angustifolia fractions sep-aiated on the basis of molecular weight. Pharmacol. Res. Com-mun. 20(supp15): 87-90 (1988)
  25. Hwang, B.H., Zhao, J.L, Choi, K.P., Jung, S.W., Kim, E.J. and Ham, S.S. The antimutagenic and anticancer effect of Taxus cus-pidata extracts. J. Kor. Soc. Food Sci. Nutr., 25: 1062-1068 (1996)
  26. Hyun, J.W., Lim, K.H., Shin, J.E., Sung, M.S., Won, Y.J., Kim, Y.S., Kang, S.S., Chang, LM., Woo, W.S., Paik, W.H., Kim, HJ., Woo, E.R., Park, H.K. and Park, J.G. Antuieoplastic effect of extracts from traditional medicinal plants and various plants (in Korean). Kor. J. Pharmacol 25(2): 171-177 (1994)
  27. Okuda, T., Ikekawa, Y. Chihara, G. and Nishioka, K. Anti-com-plementary activity of anti-tumor polysaccharides. Nature New Biol. 238: 59-64 (1972) https://doi.org/10.1038/238059a0
  28. Dorch, W. Clinical application of extracts of Echinacea purpurea or Echinacea pallida. Critical evaluation of controlled clinical studies. Z. Arztl. Fortbild. 90: 117-122 (1996)
  29. Steinmuller, C., Rosler, J., Grottrup, E., Franke, G., Wagner, H. and Lohmann-Matthes M-L. Polysaccharides isolated from plant cell cultures of Echinacea purpurea enhance the resistance of immunopressed mice against systemic infections with Candida albicans and Listeha monocytogenes. Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 15:605-614 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1016/0192-0561(93)90078-D
  30. Foster, S. Echinacea: Nature's Immune Enhancer. Healing Arts Press (1991)
  31. Greger, H. Alkamides: Structural re]atjoiishjps, distribution and biological activity. Planta Med. 50: 366-375 (1984) https://doi.org/10.1055/s-2007-969741
  32. Melchart, D., Linde, K., Worku, F., Sarkady, L., Holzmann, M., Jurcic, K. and Wagner, H. Results of five randomized studies on the immuno-nomodulatory activity of preparations of Echinacea. J. Alternative Complementary Med. 1: 145-160 (1995) https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.1995.1.145
  33. Lersch, C., Zeuner, M., Bauer, A., Siebenrock, K., Hart, R., Wag-tier, F., Fink, U., Dancygier, H. and Classen, M. Stimulation of the immune response in outpatients with hepatocellular carcino-mas by low doses of cyclopbosphamide (LDCY), Echinacea pur-purea extracts (Echinacin) and thymostimulin. Arch. Geschwulstforsch 60: 379-383(1990)