Flavor Improvement of Chungkookjang by Addition of Yucca (Yucca shidigera) Extract

유카(Yucca shidigera) 추출물 첨가에 의한 청국장의 풍미 개선에 관한 연구

  • 인재평 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과) ;
  • 이시경 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과) ;
  • 안병권 (건국대학교 응용생물화학과) ;
  • 정일민 (건국대학교 식량자원학과) ;
  • 장진혁 (쎌텍스(주))
  • Published : 2002.02.01

Abstract

This study was carried out to investigate the effect of yucca extract on the flavor development in Chungkookjang fermented by Bacrillus sp. b01. The changes in the contents of amino-type N, ammonia type N, volatile compounds and organic acids, and those in the activities of ${\alpha}-amylase$ and protease were also determined with aging period. The amount of amino-type N increased gradually with time and was slightly higher in Chungkookjang containing yucca extract than in control. The content of ammonia-type N in Chungkookjang decreased by the addition of yucca extract. During aging, a little higher amylase activity was detected in Chungkookjang containing yucca extract. However, the amylase activity was the lowest in Chungkookjang containing 1 mg/g of yucca extract. The protease activity was slightly higher in Chungkookjang containing yucca extract. The organic acids, such as citrate, acetate, malate, fumarate, and succinate, were detected. The yucca extract reduced the production of tetramethylpyrazine which was responsible for the unpleasant odor, but enhanced the production of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2,6-dimethylpyrazine which contributed to the taste. Sensory evaluation showed that the addition of yucca extract of 0.5 mg/g significantly improved the flavor and taste of products.

Keywords

Chungkookjang;yucca;flavor

References

  1. Yoo, J.Y. Present status of industries and research activities of Korean fermented soybean products. The Microorganism and Industry23: 13-30 (1997)
  2. Joo, H.K. and Yun, S.E. Imprvement on flavor and taste of Chun-gkookjang by freeze denaturation of soybean. Daesan Nonchong 5: 161-174 (1997)
  3. Masazumi, M., Yukiyishi, T, Hitoshi, M., Kenji, M., Osamu, T., Takao, I., Kazuhiro, O., Ryoji, K. and Kazuo, Y. Antiyeast steroi-dal saponins from Yucca shidigera(Mohave Yucca), a new anti-food-detenorating agent. J. Nat. Prod. 63: 332-338 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1021/np9904354
  4. Segal, R. and Schlosser, E. Role of glycosidases in the membran-lytic, antifungal action of saponins. Arch. Microbiol. 104, 147-150 (1975) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00447315
  5. Anson, M.L. The estimation of pepsin, trypsin, Papain and cathe psin with hemoglobin. J. Gen. Physiol. 22: 79-85 (1939) https://doi.org/10.1085/jgp.22.1.79
  6. Lee, B.Y., Kim, D.M. and Kim, K.H. Studies on the change in rheological properties of Chungkookjang. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 23: 478-484 (1991)
  7. In, Z.P. Flavor enhancement of Chungkookjang by addition of yucca (Yucca shidigera) extract. Master thesis, Konkuk University (2000)
  8. Bae, K.H., Ko, T.G., Kim, J.H., Cho, W.T., Han, Y.K. and Han, I.K. Use of metabolically active substance to substitute for antibi-otics in finishing pigs. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 41: 23-30 (1999)
  9. Sulistyo, J., Naotoshi, T., Kazumi, F. and Kan, K. Production of natto starter. Nippon Shokuchin Kogyo Gakkaishi, 35: 280-281 (1988)
  10. Ji, W.D., Yang, S.H., Choi, M.R., and Kim, J.K. Volatile compo-nents Korean soybean paste produced by Bacillus subtilis PM3. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 5: 143-147 (1995)
  11. Yeo, J. and Kim, K.I. Effect of teeding diets containing an antibi-otic, a probiotic or yucca extract on growth and intestinal urease activity in broiler chicks. Poultry Sci. 76: 381-385 (1997) https://doi.org/10.1093/ps/76.2.381
  12. Choi, C., Choi, K.S., Choi, J.S., Lim, S.L., Lee, S.H., Son, J.H., Choi, H.J. and Lee, H.D. Characteristics and action pattern of protease from Bacillus subtilis globigii CCKS-118 in Korean tra-ditional soy sauce. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 39: 460-465 (1996)
  13. Yoo, J.H. Effect of Artemista Nakai extract on the flavor of Chungkookjang. Master thesis, Konkuk University. (1996)
  14. Ko, T.G., Kim, J.D., Bae, S.H., Han, Y.K. and Han. I.K. Study for the development antibiotics-free diets for weanling pigs. Korean J. Anim. Sci. 42: 37-44 (2000)
  15. Wallace, R.J., Arthaud, L. and Newbold, C.J. Influence of Yucca shidigera extract on ruminal ammonia concentration and ruminal microoranisms. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. 60: 1762-1767 (1994)
  16. Makkar, H.S., Sen, S., Blummel, M. and Becker, K. Effects of fraction containing saponins from Yucca shidigera, Quillaja saponaria and Acacia auriculoforms on rumen fermentation. J. Agri. Food Chem. 46: 4324-4328 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf980269q
  17. AOAC Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Ana-lytical Chemists. Vol. 2, pp. 11-16 (1995)
  18. Han H.S. A study on the change of chemical composition during the ripening process of fennented soybean with mugwort powder. Master thesis, Konkuk University (1994)
  19. Kim, B.N., Park, C.H., Han, C.H., S.S., and Lee, S.Y. Flavor component, fatty acid and organic acid of natto with spice added. J. Korean. Soc. Food Nutr. 24: 219-227 (1995)
  20. Wang, Y., Mcallister, T.A., Newbold, C.J., Rode, L.M., Cheeke PR. and Cheng, K.J. Effect of Yucca shidigera extract on fermen-tation and degradation of steroidal saponins in the rumen simula-tion technique(Rusitec). Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 74: 143-153 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0377-8401(98)00137-0
  21. Choi, S.H. and Ji, Y.A. Change in flavor of Chungkookjang dur-ing fermentation. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 21: 229-234 (1989)
  22. Her, S., Lee, S.K. and Joo, H.K. Isolation and identification of the fibrinolytic bacteria from Korean traditional Chungkookjang. J. Korean. Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 41: 119-124 (1998)
  23. Valdez, F.R., Bush, L.J., Goetsch, A.L. and Owens, N. Effect of steroidal sapogenins on ruminal fermentation and on producdon of lactating dairy cows. J. Dairy Sci. 69: 1568-1575 (1986) https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(86)80573-2
  24. Son, D.H., Kwon, O.J., Ji, W.D., Choi, U.K., Kwon, O.J., Lee, E.J., Cho, Y.J., Cha, W.S. and Chung, Y.G. The quality of Chungkookjang prepared by Bacillus sp. CS-17 during fermentation time. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 43: 1-6 (2000)
  25. Suh, J.S., Lee, S.G. and Ryu, M.K. Effect of Bacillus strains on the Chungkookjang processing II. Change of the components and enzyme activities duhng the storage of Chungkookjang. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 14: 309-314 (1982)
  26. Robert B., Harris, D.H. and Tom, L. Yucca plant saponin in the treatment hypertention and hypercholesterolemia. J. Appl. Nutr. 30:374-381 (1978)
  27. Kim, K.J., Ryu, M.K. and Kim, S.S. Chungkookjang koji fermen-tation with rice straw. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 14: 301-308 (1982)
  28. Weatherburn, M.W. Phenol-Hypochorite reaction for determination of ammonia. J. Anal. Chem. 39: 971-974 (1967) https://doi.org/10.1021/ac60252a045
  29. Yoon, K.S. Changes of enzymetic activities during the fermenta-tion of soybean. Master thesis. Konkuk University (1988)
  30. Choi, U.K., Ji, W.D. and Chung, Y.G. Characteristics of Chungk-ookjang produced by B. subtilis DC-2. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 27: 846-856 (1998)
  31. Sugahara, E., Ito, T, Odagiri, S., Kubota, K. and Kobayashi, A. Comparison of odor components of natto and cooked soybean. Agric. Biol. Chem. 49: 311-318 (1985) https://doi.org/10.1271/bbb1961.49.311