Study on the Color Characteristics of Korean Red

한국산 적포도주의 색도 변화에 관한 연구 (II)

  • Lee, Jang-Eun (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea) ;
  • Shin, Yong-Sub (An seong-si Agricultural Development and Technology Center) ;
  • Sim, Jun-Ki (An seong-si Agricultural Development and Technology Center) ;
  • Kim, Sung-Soo (Korea Food Research Institute) ;
  • Koh, Kyung-Hee (Department of Food Science and Nutrition, The Catholic University of Korea)
  • Published : 2002.04.01


Five kinds of red wine from three different grape varieties, such as Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru (70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were prepared in the year of 2000. The total phenolic content and color changes were monitored using hunter colorimeter and spectrophotometry methods during wine processing. The total phenolic content of Gerbong (G), Campbell (C), Moru (M), Gerbong+Moru(70:30, GM), and Gerbong+Campbell(70:30, GC) were 712.6 mg/L, 3472.9 mg/L, 2209.4 mg/L, 2019.4 mg/L, and 1184.5 mg/L, respectively. Between total phenolic content and hunter colorimeter value (L, a, and b) of red wine showed no significant difference, but that of spectrophotometry color value (hue and intensity) were significantly different (p<0.001). The total phenolic content, hue, and intensity values represented significantly different between grape varieties (p<0.01, p<0.001). the hue showed a negative correlation relationship $(r^2=0.8660,\;p<0.0001)$, and that of intensity was a positive $(r^2=0.8304,\;p<0.0001)$ between total phenolic contents. The total phenolic content of red wine could be estimated simply using these equations, $Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=3319.3-X_{Hue}/2208.36,\;and\;Y_{Total\;phenolic\;content\;(mg/L)}=1230.97-X_{intensity}/98.93$


  1. Halliwell, B. The antioxidant paradox. Lancet 355: 1179-1180(2000)
  2. Pietta, P.G. Flavonoids as antioxidants. J. Nat. Prod. 63: 1035-1042(2000)
  3. Belitz, H.D and Grosch, W. Food Chemistry, pp. 749-800.Springer, Berlin, Germany (1999)
  4. Gaulijac, N.S., Glories, Y. and Vivas, N. Free radical scavenging effect of anthocyanin in red wines. Food Research International 32: 327-333 (1999)
  5. Sato, M., Ramarathnam, N., Suzuki, Y., Ohkubo, T, Takeuchi, M.and Ochi, H. Varietal differences in the phenolic contents and superoxide radical scavenging potential of wine from different sources. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44: 80-85 (1995)
  6. Koh, K.H., Lee, J.H., Yoon, K.R., Choi, S.Y. and Seo, K.L. Phe-nolic compounds of Korean red wine and their superoxide radical scavenging activity. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 7: 131-135 (1998)
  7. Kerry, N.L. and Abbey, M. Red wine and fractionated phenolic compounds prepared from red wine inhibit low density lipopro-tein oxidation in vitro. Atherosclerosis 135: 93-102 (1997)
  8. Pace, C.R., Hahn, S., Diamandis, E.P., Soleas, G. and Goldberg, D.M. The red wine phenolics trans-resveratrol and quercetin block human platelet aggregation and eicosanoid synthesis: Impli-cation for protection against coronary heart disease. Clinica.Chimica. Acta. 235: 207-219 (1995)
  9. Fuhrman, B., Lavy, A. and Aviram, M. Consumption of red wine with meals reduces the susceptibility of human plasma and low-density lipoprotein to lipid peroxidation. Am J. Clin. Nutr. 61:549-554 (1995)
  10. Hasimoto, M., Kim, S.B., Eto, M., Yoshizum, M., Ako, J., Iljima,K., Sugimoto, N., Nagano, K., Sudoh, N., Toba, K., Ouchi, Y,Kondo, K., Itakura, H. and Hosoda, K. Improvement of Qowmediated vasodilatation of the brachial artery in men by intake ofred wine. J. ASEV. Jpn. 9: 183-184 (1998)
  11. Namiki, K. and Sato, M. Increasing effect of wine in blood fluid-ity. J. ASEV. Jpn. 9: 185-186 (1998)
  12. Cao, G., Muccitelli, H.U., Moreno, C.S. and Pdor, R.L. Anthocy-anins are absorbed in glycated forms in elderly women: A phar-macokinetic study. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 73: 920-926 (2001)
  13. Zoecklein, B.W., Fugelsang, K.C., GumP, B.H. and Nury, F.S.Production Wine Analysis. pp. 129-168. Van Nostrand Reinhold,NewYork,USA(1990)
  14. Song, D.H., Kim, C.J., Rho, T.W. and Lee, J.S. PhenoHcs con-tents and browning capacity during the white wine making.Korean J. Food. Sci. Technol. 20: 787-793 (1988)
  15. Lee, S.Y, Kang, H.A., Chang, Y.I. and Chang, K.S. The changesof physicochemical composition of wine by reverse osmosis sys-tem. Food Eng. Prog. 3: 1-7 (1999)
  16. Ayala, F., Echavarri, J.F. and Negueruela, A.I. A new simplified method for measuring the color of wines. III. All Wines Brandies. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 50: 359-363 (1999)
  17. Auw, J.M., Blanco, V, O'keefe, F.O. and Sims C.A. Effect ofprocessing on the phenolics and color of cabemet sauvignon,chambourcin, and noble wines and juices. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 47:279-286 (1996)
  18. Pickering, G.J., Heatherbell, D.A. and Barnes, M.F. The produc-tion of reduced-alcohol wine using glucose oxidase treated juice.Part III. Sensory. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 50: 307-316 (1999)
  19. SAS user's guide,, SAS ins Statistictitute, Inc., Cary, USA (1985)
  20. Adrian, M., Jeandet, P., Breuil, A.C., Levite, D., Debord, S. andBessis, R. Assey of resveratrol and derivative stilbenes in winesby direct injection high performance liquid chromatography. Am.J. Enol. Vitic. 51:37-41 (2000)
  21. Darias, M.J., Jacinto, J., Rodnguez, 0., Diaz, E. and Lamuela, R.M. Effect of skin contact on the antioxidant phenolics in whitewine. Food Chem. 71: 483-487 (2000)
  22. Okuda, T. and Yokotsuka, K. Trans-resveratrol concentrations inberry skin and wines from grapes grown in japan. Am. J. Enol.Vitic. 47: 93-99 (1996)
  23. Wood, B.J.B. Microbiology of Fermented Foods. pp. 218-231Thomson Science. London, UK (1998)
  24. Ritchey, J.G. and Waterhouse, A.L. A standard red wine: Mono-meric phenolic analysis of commercial cabernet sauvignon wines.Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 50: 91-100 (1999)
  25. Heredia, F.J., Francia, E.M., Rivas, J.C., Vicario, I.M. and Santos,C. Chromatic characterization of anthocyamns from red grapes: I.pH effect. Food Chem. 63: 491-498 (1998)
  26. Kim, J.S., Sim, J.Y. and Yook, C. Development of red wine usingdomestic grape Campbell Early. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 33:319-326(2001)
  27. Darias, M.J., Carrillo, M., Diaz E. and Boulton R.B. Enhance-ment of red wine colur by pre-fermentation addition of copig-ments. Food Chom. 73:217-220(2001)
  28. Ibern, G.M., Andres, L.C., Lamuela, R.M., Buxaderas, S., Single-ton, V.L. and Torre, M.C. Browning of cava (sparkling wine) dur-ing aging in contact with lees due to the phenolic composition.Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 51: 29-36 (2000)
  29. Mirabel, M., Saucier, C., Guerra, C. and Glories, Y. Copigmenta-don in model wine solution: Occurrence and realation to wineaging. Am. J. Enol. Vitic. 50: 211-218 (1999)
  30. Shahidi F., Naczk, M. Food phenolics. pp. 128-135. Technomic Publishing Company, Lancaster, PA, USA(1995)