DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Reproductive Characteristics of the Mare in Subtropical Taiwan

  • Ju, Jyh-Cherng (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University) ;
  • Peh, Huo-Cheng (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University) ;
  • Hsu, Jenn-Chung (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University) ;
  • Cheng, San-Pao (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University) ;
  • Chiu, Shaw-Ching (Council of Agriculture, Executive Yuan, ROC) ;
  • Fan, Yang-Kwang (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University)
  • Received : 2001.05.23
  • Accepted : 2001.12.04
  • Published : 2002.04.01

Abstract

The objectives of this study were to document the reproductive traits of mares as influenced by the month of the year in Taiwan. Reproductive records, lactation traits, foal birth weight (FBW) and foal height (FBH) were collected from Holi Equine Station of Taiwan. The effects of month on these parameters were analyzed. The length of estrus (LE) was shortest in December each year. The increasing trend was recorded from January to September with a significantly (p<0.05) longer period of $12.4{\pm}0.4$ days in September than in January and February. A gradual shortening in LE was observed from September to December ($10.1{\pm}0.6$ days, p<0.05), when the shortest period of the year was observed. Mares showed signs of estrus throughout the year, but more than 80% were found in estrus during March through October. The FBW was significantly (p<0.05) affected by the breeding month of the year. The lowest foal weights were recorded in both September ($36.7{\pm}0.7$ kg) and December ($36.8{\pm}0.9$ kg), which were also significantly lower than those in other months except in March, August, and November. A trend of lower FBH from September to December (93.5-93.8 cm) than those from January to August was observed. The greatest FBH was in June (96.2 cm). Breeding months and onset of estrus of the mares exerted a significant effect on the incidence of agalactia during the lactation period. These analyses provide fundamental information on adaptive processes in respect to reproductive characteristics of mares, which indicated an extent of acclimation by these animals in subtropical Taiwan.

Keywords

Estrus;Gestation Period;Birth Weight;Birth Height;Agalactia;Mare

References

  1. Bronson, F. H. and P. D. Heideman. 1994. Seasonal regulation of reproduction in mammals. In: The Physiology of Reproduction (Ed. E. Knobil and J. D. Neill). Raven Press New York. Vol. 2, Chapter 44, pp. 541-583.
  2. Fan, Y. K., J. C. Ju, S. P. Cheng, J. C. Hsu and S. C. Chiou. 1992. A survey of the body conformation of horses in central Taiwan. J. Chin. Soc. Anim. Sci. 21:307-315.
  3. Hafez, E. S. E. and B. Hafez. 2000. Horses. In: Reproduction in Farm Animals (Ed. E. S. E. Hafez, B. Hafez, Lippincott Williams and Wilkins). $7^{th}$ ed. Philadelphia. pp. 192-217.
  4. Jainudeen, M. R. and E. S. E. Hafez. 1993. Gestation, prenatal physiology, and parturition. In: Reproduction in Farm Animals (Ed. E. S. E. Hafez. Lea and Febiger). $6^{th}$ ed. Philadelphia. pp. 213-236.
  5. Hughes, J. P., G. H. Stabenfeldt and J. W. Evans. 1975. The estrous cycle of the mare. J. Reprod. Fertil. 23(suppl.):161.
  6. Ju, J. C., S. P. Cheng, Y. K. Fan, J. C. Hsu, S. K. Chiang, E. V. Chen, S. H. Chang and S. C. Chiou. 1993. Investigation of equine hematological constituents in central Taiwan. I. Distribution of the blood cell parameters and the biochemical compositions of serum. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 6:147-153. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.1993.147
  7. Putney, D. J., J. R. Malayer, T. S. Gross, W. W. Thatcher, P. J. Hansen and M. Drost. 1988. Heat stress-induced alterations in the synthesis and secretion of proteins and prostaglandins by cultured bovine conceptuses and uterine endometrium. J. Reprod. Biol. 39:717-728. https://doi.org/10.1095/biolreprod39.3.717
  8. Nishikawa, Y. 1959. Studies on reproduction in horses. In:'ingularity and Artificial Organ Control in Reproductive Phenomena' Japan Racing Association, Tokyo.
  9. SAS Institute. 1989. $SAS^{\circledR}$ User's Guide:Statistics. Version 6.03. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA.
  10. Hodge, S. L., J. L. Kreider, G. D. Potter, P. G. Harms and J. L. Fleeger. 1982. Influence of photoperiod on the pregnant and postpartum mare. Am. J. Vet. Res. 43:1752-1755.
  11. Ron, M., R. Bar-Anan and G. R. Wiggans. 1984. Factors affecting conception rate of Israeli Holstein cattle. J. Dairy Sci. 67:854-860. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(84)81377-6
  12. Sharp, D. C., B. D. Cleaver and S. D. Davis. 1993. Photoperiod. In: Equine Reproduction (Ed. A. O. McKinnon and J. L. Voss). Lea and Febiger, Phildelphia. pp. 179-185.
  13. Squires, E. L. 1993. Estrous detection. In: Equine Reproduction (Ed. A. O. Mckinnon and J. L. Voss, Lea and Febiger). Philadelphia. pp. 186-195.
  14. Back, D. G., B. W. Pickett, J. L. Voss and G. E. Seidel. 1974. Observations on the sexual behavior of nonlactating mares. J. Am. Vet. Med. Assoc. 165:717-720.
  15. Monty, D. E. and C. Racowsky. 1987. In vitro evaluation of early embryo viability and development in summer heat-stressed, superovulated dairy cows. Theriogenology 28:451-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/0093-691X(87)90250-0
  16. Hutton, C. A. and T. M. Meacham. 1968. Reproductive efficiency of fourteen horse farms. J. Anim. Sci. 27:434-438. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1968.272434x
  17. Burkhardt, J. 1947. Anoestrus in the mare and its treatment with estrogen. Vet. Rec. 59:341-342.
  18. Gordon, I. 1983. Introduction to controlled breeding in horses. In:Controlled Breeding in Farm Animals, Pergamon Press, New York. pp. 379-387
  19. Howell, C. and W. Rollins. 1951. Environmental sources of gestation length of the horse. J. Anim. Sci. 10:789-805. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1951.104789x
  20. Hughes, J. P., G. H. Stabenfeldt and J. W. Evans. 1972. Clinical and endocrine aspects of the estrous cycle of the mare. Proc. Am. Assoc. Equine Pract. 119-148.
  21. Osborne, V. E. 1966. An analysis of the pattern of ovulation as it occurs in the annual reproductive cycle of the mare in Australia. Aust. Vet. J. 42:149-154. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-0813.1966.tb16013.x
  22. Stabenfeldt, G. H., J. P. Hughes and J. W. Evans. 1972. Ovarian activity during the estrous cycle of the mare. Endocrinology 90:1379-1384.
  23. Ginther, O. J. 1974. Occurrence of anestrus, estrus, diestrus and ovulation over a 12-month period in mares. Am. J. Vet. Res. 35:1173-1179.
  24. Hughes, J. P., G. H. Stabenfeldt and P. C. Kennedy. 1980. The estrous cycle and selected functional and pathologic ovarian abnormalities in the mare. Vet. Clin. North Am. 2:225-239.
  25. Andrews, F. N. and F. F. McKenzie. 1941. Estrus, ovulation and related phenomena in the mare. Univ. Mo. Agric. Exp. Sta. Res. Bull. 329:1-117.
  26. Ginther, O. J., H. L. Whitmore and E. L. Squires. 1972. Characteristics of estrus, diestrus, and ovulation in mares and effects of season and nursing. Am. J. Vet. Res. 33:1935-1939.