Impact of Three Categories of Supplements on In Sacco Ruminal Degradation of Urea-Treated and Untreated Straw Substrates

Srinivas, Bandla;Krishnamoorthy, U.;Jash, Soumitra

  • Received : 2001.06.05
  • Accepted : 2001.10.08
  • Published : 2002.02.01


The objective of this study was to examine the impact of three categories of supplements on intake and diet induced difference on degradation of straw substrates. Sixteen crossbred cattle fitted with rumen cannula were randomly divided into 4 equal groups. Animals were fed on wheat straw ad libitum without any supplement except mineral mixture (control; $T_1$) or supplemented with concentrate mixture (CS; $T_2$) or green Lucerne (GLS; $T_3$) or urea-molasses block lick (ULS; $T_4$). Total dry matter intake in $T_2$, $T_3$ and $T_4$ was increased by 70, 54 and 49%, respectively compared to $T_1$ which was only 1.55 kg/100 kg B.Wt. Other than control animals, straw intake was less on $T_3$ than $T_2$ or $T_4$. In Sacco degradation of untreated and urea treated wheat or paddy straw in different treatments indicated that the supplements had a significant (p<0.01) impact on rapidly soluble (A) and insoluble but potentially degradable (B) fractions of straw. Urea treatment increased fraction-A but, provision of supplement improved fraction-B also. Effective degradation (ED) of OM was better on $T_2$. Rate of degradation (C) of OM and CWC was dependent on diet and type of straw but hemicellulose and cellulose were related to latter factor only. ED of cell wall carbohydrates (CWC) was similar in $T_2$ and $T_4$ but higher than $T_3$. CS was more effective in improving the degradation of both untreated and urea treated straw while ULS was effective on the former only. CS had more impact on superior quality straw while contrary was true with ULS. Although GLS improved intake and degradability of untreated and urea treated straws, its bulkiness affected the straw intake compared to other supplements.


Supplements;Intake;Rumen;Cell Wall Degradation;Wheat Straw;Paddy Straw;Urea Treatment


  1. AOAC. 1984. Offical Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, DC.
  2. Bowman, J. G. P. and J. M. Asplund. 1988. Nitrogen utilization, ruminal fermentation and abomasal nitrogen flow in sheep fed Caucasian bluestem hay supplemented with Lucerne or urea. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 20:33-44.
  3. Capper, B. S. 1988. Genetic variation in the feeding value of cereal straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 21:127-140.
  4. Conway, E. J. 1962. Micro diffusion analysis and volumetric error (5th Ed.). Crossby Lockwood, London.
  5. Dias-Da-Silva, A. A. and F. Sundstol. 1986. Urea as a source of ammonia for improving the nutritive value of wheat straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 14:67-79.
  6. Erdman, R. A., G. H. Proctor and J. H. Vandersall. 1988. Effect of rumen ammonia concentration on in situ rate and extent of digestion of feedstuffs. J. Dairy Sci. 69:2312-2320.
  7. Manyuchi, B., E. R. Orskov and R. N. B. Kay. 1992. Effects of feeding small amounts of ammonia treated straw on degradation rate and intake of untreated straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 38:293-304.
  8. Mc Donal. 1981. A revised model for the estimation of protein degradability in the rumen. J. Agric. Sci. Camb. 96:251-252.
  9. Preston, T. R. 1982. Nutritional limitations associated with the feeding of tropical forages. J. Anim. Sci. 54:877-883.
  10. Russel, J. B., J. D. O'onnor, D. G. Fox, P. J. Van Soest and C. J. Sniffen. 1992. A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. I. Ruminal fermentation. J. Anim. Sci. 70:3551-3561.
  11. Silva, A. T. and E. R. Orskov. 1988. The effect of five different supplements on the degradation of straw in sheep given untreated barley straw. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 19:289-298.
  12. Smith, R. H. 1989. Protein metabolism in the rumen. In: Advanced Nutrition for Developing Countries (Ed. U. B. Singh). Indovision pvt. Ltd., Ghaziabad, India. pp. 158-177.
  13. Smith, R. H., M. P. Grantley-Smith, R. T. Merry, A. B. McAllan, J. D. Oldham and D. N. Salter. 1987. Supply of N compounds to the rumen and their subsequent metabolism and nutritional value. In: Isotope Aided studies on Non-protein-Nitrogen on Agro-Industrial By products utilization by ruminants, Vietina, IAEA. pp. 41-62.
  14. Tuah, A. K., E. Lufadefu, E. R. Osskov and G. A. Blackett. 1986. Rumen degradation of straw 1. Untreated and ammonia-treated barley, oat and wheat straw varieties and Triticale straw. Anim. Prod. 43:261.269.
  15. Agriculture Research Council. 1990. The nutrient requirements of ruminant livestock. Common-wealth Agricultural Buerax International, Agricultural Research Council, Wallingford, UK., pp. 59-71.
  16. Meng, Q. X., Z. G. Xia and M. S. Kerley. 2000. The requirement of ruminal degradable protein for non-structural carbohydrate fermenting microbes and its reaction with dilution rate in continuous culture. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 13:1399-1406.
  17. Krebs, G., R. A. Leng and J. V. Nolan. 1989. Effect of bacterial kinetics in the rumen of eliminating rumen protozoa or supplementing with soyabean meal or urea in sheep on a low protein fibrous feed. In: The Roles of Protozoa or Fungi in Ruminant Digestion (Ed. J. V. Nolan, R. A. Leng and D. I. Demeyer) Penambul books, Armidale, Australia. pp. 199-210.
  18. Nakashima, Y. and E. R. Orskov. 1990. Rumen degradation of straw. 9. Effect of cellulose and ammonia treatment on different varieties of rice straws and their botanical fractions. Anim. Prod. 50:309-317.
  19. Grenet, E. 1989. A comparision of the digestion and reduction in particle size of Lucerne hay (Medicago sativa) and Italian ryegrass hay (Lolium italium) in the ovine digestive tract. Br. J. Nutr. 62:493-507.
  20. Orskov, E. R., W. J. Shand, D. Tedescot and L. A. F. Morrice. 1990. Rumen degradation of straw. 10. Consistency of differences in nutritive value between varieties of cereal straws. Anim. Prod. 51:155-162.
  21. Baile, C. A. and J. M. Forbes 1974. Control of feed intake and regulation of energy balance in ruminants. Physiol. Rev. 54:160-214.
  22. Krishnamoorthy, U., H. Soller, H. Steingass and K. H. Menke. 1991. A compartive study on rumen fermentation of energy supplements in vitro. J. Anim. Physiol. a. Anim. Nutr. 65:28-35.
  23. Leng, R. A. 1990. Forage Utilization by ruminants. Nutr. Res. Rev. 3:277-303.
  24. Ranilla, M. J., M. D. Carro, F. J. Giraldez, A. R., Mantecon and J. S. Gonzalez. 2000. Comparision of rumen fermentation patterns and in situ degradation of grazed herbage in Churra and Merino sheep. Livest. Prod. Sci. 62:193-204.
  25. Hunt, C. W., T. J. Klopfenstein and R. A. Britton. 1988. Effect of alfalfa addition to wheat straw diets on intake and digestion in beef cattle. Nutr. Rep. Int. 38:1249-1257.
  26. Ndlovu, L. R. and J. G. Buchanan-Smith. 1985. Utilization of poor quality roughages by sheep: effects of alfalfa supplementation on ruminal parameters, fibre digestion and rate of passage from the rumen. Can. J. Anim. Sci. 65:693-703.
  27. McAllan, A. B., J. E. Cockburn, A. P. Williams and R. H. Smith. 1988. The degradation of different protein supplements in the rumen of steers and the effect of these supplements on carbohydrate digestion. Br. J. Nutr. 60:669-682.
  28. Orskov, E. R., F. O. Deb Hovell and F. Mould. 1980. The use of the nylon bag technique for the evaluation of feed stuffs. Tropical Anim. Prod. 5:195-213.
  29. Das, M. N. and N. C. Giri. 1991. Design and Analysis of Experiments. Wiley Eastern Ltd., New Delhi.
  30. Bhat, P. N. and P. C. Bansil. 1999. Grains and roughage production and its utilization in Asian-Australasian region-Review. Asian-Aus. J. Anim. Sci. 12:481-492.
  31. Boniface, A. M., R. M. Murray and J. P. Hogan. 1986. Optimum level of ammonia in the rumen liquor of cattle fed tropical pasture hay. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod. 16:151-154.
  32. Bonsi, M. L. K. and P. O. Osuji. 1997. The effect of feeding cottonseed cake, sesbania or leucaena with crushed maize as supplement to teff straw. Livest. Prod. Sci. 51:173-181.
  33. Barnett, A. J. G. and R. L. Reid. 1957. Studies on the production of volatile fatty acids from grass and rumen liquor in an artificial rumen. J. Agric. Sci. 48:315-321.
  34. Mgheni, D. M., A. E. Kimambo, F. Sundstol and J. Madsen. 1994. The influence of urea supplementation or treatment of rice straw and fish meal supplementation on rumen environment and activity in sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 49:223-235.
  35. Murphy, M. R. and P. M. Kennedy. 1993. Particle dynamics. In: Quantitative Aspects of Ruminant Digestion and Metabolism (Ed. J. M. Forbes and J. France). CAB International, UK. pp. 86-105.
  36. Snedecor, G. W. and W. G. Cochran. 1967. Statistical Methods Oxford and IBH publishing Company, New Delhi, India.
  37. Goering, H. K. and P. J. Van Soest. 1975. Forage Fibre Analysis (Apparatus, reagent, procedures and some applications). ARS, U.S. Deptt., Agric., Handbook No. 379, Washington, DC.
  38. Srinivas Bandla and B. N. Gupta. 1997. Rumen fermentation, bacterial and total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) production rates in cattle fed on urea-molasses-mineral block licks supplement. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 65:275-286.
  39. Fondevila, M., C. Castrillo, J. A. Guada and J. Balcells. 1994. Effect of ammonia treatment and carbohydrate supplementation of barley straw on rumen liquid characteristics and substrate degradation by sheep. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 50:137-155.
  40. Prakash, P., D. V. Reddy, R. Ramachandra Reddy and N. Krishna. 1996. The catalytic effect of supplementation of protein meals on utilization of rice straw-poultry droppings-rice bran diet in buffaloes. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 63:229-243.
  41. Van Soest, P. J. 1994. The nutritional ecology of the ruminant. (2nd Ed). Ithaca, New York, Cornell University Press.
  42. Preston, T. R. and R. A. Leng. 1987. Matching ruminant production systems with available resource in the tropics and sub-tropics. Penambul Books, Armidale.
  43. Sutherland, T. M. 1988. Particle separation in forestomach of sheep. In: Aspects of Digestive Physiology in Ruminants (Ed. A. Dobson and M. J. Dobson). Publishing Associates, Ithaca, New York. pp. 43-73.
  44. Weston, R. H. 1996. Some aspects of constraint to forage consumption by ruminants. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 47:175-97.
  45. Ibrahim, M. N. M., S. Tamminga and G. Zemmelink. 1995. Degradation of tropical roughages and concentrate feeds in the rumen. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 54:81-92.
  46. Krebs, G. and R. A. Leng. 1984. The effect of supplementation with molasses/urea blocks on ruminal digestion. Proc. Aust. Soc. Anim. Prod., 15:704-705.
  47. Ulyatt, M. J., D. W. Dellow, A. John, C. S. W. Reid and G. C. Waghorn, G. C. 1983. Contribution of chewing during eating and rumination to the clearence of digesta from the rumenoreticulum. In: Control of Digestion and Metabolism in Ruminants (Ed: L. P. Milligan, W. L. Grovum and A. Dobson). Prentice-Hall, Engelwood Cliffs, New Jersey. pp. 498-515.
  48. Smith, L. H., H. K. Goering, D. R. Waldo and C. H.Gordon and C. H. 1971. In vitro digestion rate of forage cell wall components. J. Dairy Sci. 54:71-76.
  49. Walli, T. K., E. R. Orskov and P. K. Bhargava. 1988. Rumen degradation of straws, botanical fraction of the straw varieties and effect of ammonia treatments. Anim. Prod. 46: 347-352.

Cited by

  1. Effect of fortifying concentrate supplement with fibrolytic enzymes on nutrient utilization, milk yield and composition in lactating goats vol.80, pp.3, 2009,
  2. Effect of source and dose of probiotics and exogenous fibrolytic enzymes (EFE) on intake, feed efficiency, and growth of male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves vol.42, pp.6, 2010,
  3. The impact of hydrolyzing and oxidizing agents on chemical composition and digestibility of various high-fibre forages vol.73, pp.3, 2018,