Studies on Lipid Intake, Serum Lipid Profiles and Serum Fatty Acid Composition in College Women Who Smoke

흡연여대생의 지질섭취와 혈중지질 및 지방산 조성에 관한 연구

  • 안홍석 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 이금주 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과) ;
  • 김나영 (성신여자대학교 식품영양학과)
  • Published : 2002.02.01

Abstract

Cigarette smoking has long been recognized as a major risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease. Several investigators have reported the strong association between smoking and high serum cholesterol, triglyceride concentration, SFA and low HDL cholesterol, PUFA and $\omega$6 concentrations. Therefore, this study was done to investigate the effect of smoking on the serum lipid profile and fatty acid composition of college women. Sixty-one non-smokers and twenty-seven smokers were selected from college women students in the Seoul area. Their lipid intake, serum lipid concentration and fatty acid composition were examined. There were no differences in the general characteristics and anthropometric indices between the smokers and non-smokers. However, alcohol consumption was significantly higher in smokers than non-smokers (p<0.001). The daily caloric intake of smokers and non-smokers were 1875.84 kcal and 1915.53 kacl, respectively. On the other hand, the mean daily intake of lipids and cholesterol were significantly lower in smokers (p<0.05). In smokers, the mean concentrations of serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and the LDL-C/HDL-C ratio were higher, and the compositions of EPA and DHA were lowe than in non-smokers. There was a negative correlation between the serum triglyceride and PUFA levels in the two groups. Also, serum HDL-C correlated negatively with MUFA in smokers and non-smokers (p<0.01). These results suggest that smoking cause inadequate changes in serum lipid profile and serum fatty acid composition, thereby increasing the tendency for coronary heart disease.

References

  1. 김범수 . 강진호 . 최 권 . 정현옥 . 이혜숙 . 이상종 . 이만호 . 박정로(1998) : 정산인에서 흡연과 혈중지질과의 상관관계. 한국지질학회 8(2) : 120-126
  2. 김정희 . 이화신(1997) : 흡연여대생의 혈청지질, Cu, Zn, Ceruloplasmin 농도 및 ferroxidase 활성도. 지역사회영양학회지 2(4) : 515-522
  3. 농촌진흥청(1991) : 식품성분표, 제4개정판, 농촌진흥청
  4. 보건복지부(2000) : ‘98국민영양조사보고서, 보건복지부
  5. 신광출판사(1995) : 한국상용식품의 지방산 조성표. 연세대학교 생활 과학대학 식품영양학과, 신광출판사, 서울
  6. 이성숙 . 최인선 . 이경화 . 최운정 . 오승호(1996) : 흡연남자대학생의 영양소 섭취 및 혈중 지질양상에 관한 연구. 한국영양학회지 29(5) : 489-498
  7. 이성희(1993) : 일부여고생의 흡연실태 경북대학교 대학원 석사학위 논문
  8. 윤군애(1997) : 흡연이 혈장의 비타민 C 합량과 지질과산화 및 지질의 농도 변화에 미치는 영향. 한국영양학회지 30(10) : 1180-1187
  9. 한국영양학회(1995) : 한국인 영양권장량, 제6차 개정, 한국영양학회
  10. 한국영양학회(2000) : 한국인 영양권장량, 제7차 개정, 한국영양학회
  11. 香川女子榮養大學出成社(1992) : 食品成分表
  12. Benowitz NL(1998) : Phamacologic aspects of cigarette smoking and nicotine addiction. N Engl J Med 17 : 1318-1330
  13. Bert HJ, Steven GA, Troy BA, Michael Q(1998) : The relationship between somoking, cholesterol, and HDL-C levels in adult women. Women & Health 23(4) : 27-39
  14. Boberg M, Vessby B, Croon LB(1985) : Fatty acid composition of platelets and of plasma lipid esters in relation to platelet function in patients with ischemic heart disease. Atherosclerosis 58 : 49-63 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(85)90055-3
  15. Boudreau MD, Chanmugam PS, Hant SB, Lee SH, Hwang DH(1991) : Lack of dose response by dietary n-3 fatty acids at a constant ration of n-3 to n-6 fatty acids in suppressing eicosanoid biosyn-thesis from arachidonic acid. Am J Clin Nutr 54 : 111-117
  16. Bronte SB(1961) : Cigarette smoking and ischemic heart disease. Br Med J 379-384
  17. Ciavatti M, Michel G, Dechavanne M(1978) : Platelet phospholipid in stroke. Clin Chim Acta 84 : 347-351 https://doi.org/10.1016/0009-8981(78)90251-6
  18. Cooper T(1975) : Cardiovascular disease in the health consequence of smoking, pp.13-38, Atlanta : US Dept. HEW Public Health service center for disease control
  19. Cullen P, Schulte H, Assmann G(1998) : Smoking, lipoproteins and coronart heart disease risk. Eur Heart J 19 ; 1632-1641
  20. Denes RH, Geoffrey CK(1989) : Differences in dietary intake associated with smoking status. Eur J Clin Nutr 44 : 185-193
  21. Denetrius A, Yvonne J, Marc SM, Margaret EM(1987) : Associations beetween smoking and body weight in the US population : Analysis of NHANES II. Am J Public Health 77 : 439-444 https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.77.4.439
  22. FAO/WHO(1994) : The report of the FAO/WHO Expert consultation of fats and oils in human nutrition. Rome, FAO/WHO
  23. Fehily AM, Phillips KM, Yarnell JWG(1984) : Diet, smoking, social class, and body mass index in the caerphilly heart Disease study. Am J Clin Nutr 40 : 827-833
  24. Folch J, Lees M, Stanly GHS(1957) : A Simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissue. J Biolo Chem 226 : 497-509
  25. Freeman DJ, Griffin BA, Murray E, Lindsay GM, Gaaffney D, Packard CJ, Shepherd J(1993) : Smoking and plasma lipoproteins in man effects on low density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and high density lipoprotein subfraction distribution. Eur J Clin Invest 23 : 630-640 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2362.1993.tb00724.x
  26. Freeman DJ, Packard CJ(1995) : Smoking and plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Clin Sci 89 : 333-342
  27. Fridwald WT, Levy RI, Fredricson DS(1972) : Estimation of the concentration of low density lipoprotein cholesterol in plasma without use of the preparative ultra centrifuge. Clin Chem 18 : 499-502
  28. Kannel WB(1981) : Update on the role of smoking in coronary artery disease. Am Heart J 101 : 319-328 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(81)90197-6
  29. Klesges RC, Meyers AW, KLesges LM, Lavasque ME(1989) : Smoking, bodyweight and their effects on smoking behavior : a comprehensive review of the literacture. Psychol Bull 106 : 204-230 https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.106.2.204
  30. Kromhout D(1999) : Fatty acids, antioxidents and coronary heart disease from an epodemiological perspective. Lipids 34 : S27-S31
  31. Malasanos TH, Stacpoole PW(1991) : Biological effects of w-3 fatty acids in diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 14 : 1160-1179 https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.14.12.1160
  32. McGill HC(1988) : The cardiovascular pathology of smoking. Am Heart J 115 : 250-257 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(88)90645-X
  33. Mjos OD(1988) : Lipid effects of smoking. Am Heart J 115 : 272-275 https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-8703(88)90649-7
  34. Morrisson WR, Smith LM(1964) : Preparation of fatty acid methylester and dimethyacetals from lipids with boron trifluoride methanol. J Lipid Res 5 : 600-608
  35. Nestel PJ(1989) : Optimizing dietary fatty acids to prevent coronary heart disease. Proc Intern Congr Nutr 427-430
  36. Nuttens MC, Romon M, Ruidavets B, Arveiler D, Ducimeteire P, Lecerf JM, Richard JL, Cambou JP, Simon C(1992) : Relationship between smoking and diet : The MONICA-France project. J Int Med 231 : 349-356 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2796.1992.tb00943.x
  37. Pawlosky R, Hibbelin BW, Sebring N, Salem N(1999) : The effect of cigarette smoking on the metabolism of essential fatty aicd. Lipids 34 : S287
  38. Perkins KA, Epstein LH, Stiller RL, Marks BL, Jacob RG(1989) : Acute effects of nicotine on resting metabolic rate in cigarette smokers. Am J Clin Nutr 50 : 545-550
  39. Prescott E, Merete H, Peter S, Hans JV(1988) : Smoking and risk of myocardial infarction in women and men : :longitudinal population study. BMJ 316 : 1043-1047
  40. Simon JA, Josephine F, Jhon TB, Warren SB(1995a) : Serum fatty acid and the risk for stroke. Stroke 26 : 778-782
  41. Simon JA, Hodgkins ML, Browner WS(1995b) : Serum fatty acids and the risk of coronary heart disease. Am J Epidemiol 142 : 469-476
  42. Simopoulou AP(1991) : Omega-3 fatty acids in health and disease and in growth and development. Am J Clin Nutr 54 : 438-463
  43. Stamler J(1968) : Cigarette smoking and atherosclerotic coronary artery disease. NY Acad Med 44 : 1476-1494
  44. Steinbeg D, Parthasarathy S, Carew T, Khoo J, Witztum J(1989) : Beyond cholesterol : Modification of low density lipoprotein that increase its atherogenecity. N Engl J Med 320 : 915-924
  45. Tahvanainen E, Molin M, Laakso J(1999) : Interrlationships between low density lipoprotein receptor defect, serum fatty acid composition and serum cholesterol concentration. J Nutr Biochem 10 : 360-366 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(99)00016-9
  46. Taylor KG, Carter TJ, Valente AJ(1981) : Sex differences in the relationships between obesity, alcohol consumpsion and cigarette smoking and serum lipid and apolipoprotein concentrations in a normal population. Atherosclerosis 38 : 11-18 https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9150(81)90098-8
  47. United Sates Surgeon General(1983) : The health consequences of smoking. Cardiovascular disease. Rockville, Martland : United States Department of health and Human Service
  48. William EM(1991) : Biosynthesis of prostaglandins. Annu Rev Nutr 11 : 41-60 https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.nu.11.070191.000353