DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

The Formaion of N-nitrosamine in Soy Sauce, Soybean Paste and Beer under Simulated Gastric Digestion

간장, 된장 및 맥주의 인공소화시 N-nitrosamine의 생성

  • Kim, Kyung-Ran (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Lee, Soo-Jung (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Shin, Jung-Hye (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Seo, Jong-Kwon (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Shon, Mi-Yae (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Sung, Nak-Ju (Dept. of Food and Nutrition, Institute of Agriculture & Life Science, Gyeongsang National University)
  • 김경란 (경상대학교 식품영양학과, 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 이수정 (경상대학교 식품영양학과, 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 신정혜 (경상대학교 식품영양학과, 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 서종권 (경상대학교 식품영양학과, 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 손미예 (경상대학교 식품영양학과, 농업생명과학연구원) ;
  • 성낙주 (경상대학교 식품영양학과, 농업생명과학연구원)
  • Published : 2002.06.01

Abstract

The aim of the study was to analyze N-nitrosamine (NA) and its precursors in serveral fermented foods which were treated with nitrite, thiocyanate and ascorbic acid under simulated gastric digestion. Every analyzed sample contained nitrate, with levels ranging from 0.3 to 1.3 mg/kg, but nitrite was present at very low levels of less than 0.3 mg/kg. And other precursors of amines such as dimethylamine and trimethylamine were detected less than 0.5 mg/kg in every samples. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) was detected in the levels of <0.5 ∼ 2.7 ug/kg in soy sauce,1.5∼3.1 ug/kg in soybean paste and <0.5∼1.8 ug/kg in beer, while NDMA levels increased by 1.1∼4.5 times in the fermented foods which were digested under simulated gastric conditions.

References

  1. Boyland E, Walker SA. 1974. Effect of thiocyanate on nitrosation of amines. Nature 248: 601-602 https://doi.org/10.1038/248601a0
  2. Fan TY, Tannenbaum SR. 1973. Factors influencing the rate of formation of nitrosomorpholine from morpholine and nitrite: acceleration by thiocyanate and other ions. J Agric Food Chem 21: 237-240 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf60186a006
  3. Tannenbaum SR, Sinskey AJ, Weisman M, Bishop W. 1974. Nitrite in human saliva: Its possible relationship to nitrosamine formation. J Nat Cancer Inst 53: 79-84
  4. Luepker RV, Pechacek TE, Murray DM, Johnso CA, Hund F, Jacobs DR. 1981. Saliva thiocyanate: A chemical indicator of cigarette smoking in adolescents. Am J Publ Hlth 71: 1320-1324 https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.71.12.1320
  5. Mirvish SS. 1975. Formation of N-nitroso compounds: Chemistry, kinetics and in vivo occurrence. Toxi Appl Pharmacol 31: 325-351 https://doi.org/10.1016/0041-008X(75)90255-0
  6. Oshima H, Kawabata T. 1977. Mechanism of the N-nitrosodimethylamine formation from trimethylamine. Bull Japan Soc Fish 44: 77-81
  7. Fiddler W, Piotrowski EG, Pensabean JW, Doerr RC, Wassermann AE. 1972. Effect of sodium nitrite concentration on N-nitrosodimethylamine formation in frankfurters. J Food Sci 37: 668 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1972.tb02721.x
  8. Sung NJ, Hwang OJ, Lee EH. 1988. Studies on N-nitrosamine of Korean ordinary soysauce. J Korean Soc Food Nutr 17: 125-135
  9. O'Brien TJ, Lukes BK, Scanlan RA. 1980. Control of N- nitrosodimethylamine in malt through the use of liquid/ gaseous sulfur dioxide. Master Brew Assoc Am Tech Q 17: 196-200
  10. Weng YM. 1989. Nitrosamine formation and mutagenicity of Chinese-style salted fish treated with nitrite under simulated gastric digestion. MS thesis. Cornell Univ
  11. Len Kamn G, Mckeown G, Smith DM. 1965. New colorimetric method for the determination of the nitrate and nitrite content of baby foods. J A O A C Food Chem 48: 892-897
  12. Sung NJ, Klausner KA, Hotchkiss JH. 1991. Influence of nitrate, ascorbic acid, and nitrate reductase microorganisms on N-nitrosamine formation during Korean-style soysauce fermentation. Food Addit Contam 8: 291-298 https://doi.org/10.1080/02652039109373978
  13. Kwon TY. 1983. Studies on nitrosamine and related substances in Korean native soysauce. PhD Dissertation. Chunbuk National Univ
  14. Lee SJ, Shin JH, Kim JG, Sung NJ. 1998. The effect of processing conditions of the salted and dried yellow corvenia (Gulbi) on N-nitrosamine (NA) formation during its processing: 1. Changes of amines, nitrite in the salted dried yellow corvenia during its processing and storage. Korean J Food Nutr 11: 444-451
  15. Scanlan RA, Barbour JF, Hotchkiss JH, Libbey LM. 1980. N-nitrosodimethylamine in beer. Food Cosmet Toxicol 18: 27-29 https://doi.org/10.1016/0015-6264(80)90006-1
  16. Gloria MBA, Barbour JF, Scanlan RA. 1997. N-nitrosodimethylamine in Brazilian, U.S. domestic and U.S. imported beers. J Agric Food Chem 45: 814-816 https://doi.org/10.1021/jf960523j
  17. Chung MJ. 1996. Detection of N nitrosamine in alcoholic beverage. MS thesis. Gyeongsang National Univ
  18. Sung NJ, Shin JH, Lee SJ. 1996. N-nitrosamine in Korean beer. J Food Sci Nutr 1: 6-9
  19. Spiegelhalder BG, Eisenbrand R. 1980. N-nitroso compounds. International Agency for Research on Cancer 31: 467
  20. Mangino MM, Scanlan RA, O'Brien TJ. 1981. N-nitrosamines in beer. In N-nitroso compounds. ACS Symposium Series 174, Am Chem Soc. Washington, DC. p 229-245
  21. Lee SJ, Shin JH, Kim JG, Sung NJ. 2000. Effect of nitrite, thiocyanate and ascorbic acid on N-nitrosamine formation in salted and dried yellow corvenia under simulated gastric digestion. J Fd Hyg Safety 15: 101-107
  22. Yamamoto M, Yamada T, Tanimura A. 1976. Studies on the formation of nitrosamines (V). The effects of citrate, tartrate and thiocyanate on the rates of nitrosation. J Food Hyg Soc Japan 17: 363 https://doi.org/10.3358/shokueishi.17.363
  23. Fiddler W, Pensabene JW, Piotrowski EG, Doerr RC, Wasserman AE. 1973. Use of sodium ascorbate or erythorbate to inhibit formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine in frankfurters. J Food Sci 38: 1084 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1973.tb02157.x

Cited by

  1. Quality Characteristics and Antioxidant Activity of Soy Sauce with Added Levels of Black Garlic Extract vol.32, pp.2, 2016, https://doi.org/10.9724/kfcs.2016.32.2.188
  2. Distribution of Seven N-Nitrosamines in Food vol.31, pp.3, 2015, https://doi.org/10.5487/TR.2015.31.3.279