Characteristics of Heavy Metal Concentrations and Indoor Atmospheric Environments in Busan Metropolitan Area, Korea

Park, Jong-Kil;Kim, Yoo-Kuen;Lee, Hwa-Woon;Jang, Nan-Sim;Park, Moon-Ki

  • Published : 2002.08.01


The current paper describes the indoor/outdoor air quality in school environments through analyses of the heavy metal concentrations using Inductive Coupled Plasma(ICP). School environments in a heavy traffic area, two industrial areas, quasi-industrial area, and residential area were evaluated. The results were as follows: (1) The locations with the highest indoor and outdoor concentrations of heavy metals were the industrial areas followed by the heavy traffic area, residential area, and quasi-industrial area in a descending order of magnitude. Plus, the indoor heavy metal concentrations were higher then the outdoor ones. (2) The main heavy metal components were Zn, Al and Ca. Higher concentration levels were found indoors than outdoors. The heavy metal concentrations were also higher in the classrooms than in the corridor or outdoors. (3) The total heavy metal concentrations in the studied areas were highly dependent on the weather elements. including the relative humidity, mixing ratio, and wet-bulb depression. Accordingly, special ventilation systems are recommended to reduce air pollution in school environments.


indoor-outdoor air quality;school environment;heavy metals


  1. Res. Rep. Env. Sci. Tech. v.11 Health effect evaluation on indoor air quality and symptoms of the building office workers in Taejeon area Lee, K. S.;Y. C. Cho;D. B. Kee
  2. Indoor Air and Human Health Gammage, B.;S. V. Kaye
  3. Master of Kyeonghee Univ. A study on the heavy metal pollution in the indoor ambient air Kim, Y. R.
  4. Toxic Pollution Paul, J. L.;M. D. Joan
  5. Inje Journal v.7 Comparative analysis of respirable dust and heavy metals between aboveground and underground at underground makers in Pusan Han, D. H.
  6. Atmospheric Environment v.13 Indoor-outdoor relationships for airborne particulate matter of outdoor origin Alzona, J.;B. L. Cohen;H. Rudolph;H. N. Jow;J. O. Frohliger
  7. J. of the Korean Env. Sci. Soc. v.3 Chloroform in the air of indoor swimming pools and the outdoor air near the swimming pools in a city of Korea Jo, W. K.;Y. M. Hwang
  8. J. Korean Earth Science Society v.19 Heavy metal concentrations of indoor and outdoor dusts: In middle schools in the Kangseoku and Yangchonku areas, Seoul Bae, Y. J.;K. H. KIm;H. T. Chon;J. S. Ahn
  9. J. Air & Waste Manage. Assoc. v.44 The South Karelia air Pollution Study: Relationship of Outdoor and Indoor Concentration of Malodorous Sulfar Compounds released by Pulp Mills Marttila, O.;T. Haahtela;I. Silakoski;H. Vattinen;O. Suominen
  10. Atmospheric Environment v.6 Relationship between outdoor and indoor air pollution Andersen, I.
  11. J. Air Pollution Control Association v.23 Outdoor-indoor levels of six air pollutants Thompson, C. R.;E. G. Hensel;G. Kats
  12. J. of the Korean Environmental Sciences Society v.6 A study on the characteristics of heavy metal concentration and indoor atmospheric environments: Heavy metal concentration in school environments Park, J. K.;N. S. Jang;H. J. Park;M. K. Park;Y. S. Hwang;J. Y. Jung
  13. Smithsonian Meterorological Tables(6th revised ed.) List, R. J.
  14. Environment and Pollution(4th ed.) KIm, Y. K.;S. E. Moon;J. K. Park;S. J. Lee;J. K. Lee

Cited by

  1. Analysis of Ambient Air Quality Level in Subway Area in Busan Metropolitan City vol.12, pp.2, 2003,