Surface Ozone Episode Due to Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange and Free Troposphere-Boundary Layer Exchange in Busan During Asian Dust Events

  • Moon, Y.S. ;
  • Kim, Y.K. ;
  • K. Strong ;
  • Kim, S.H. ;
  • Lim, Y.K. ;
  • Oh, I.B. ;
  • Song, S.K.
  • Published : 2002.06.01


The current paper reports on the enhancement of O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$, and aerosols during the Asian dust event that occurred over Korea on 1 May 1999. To confirm the origin and net flux of the O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$, and aerosols, the meteorological parameters of the weather conditions were investigated using Mesoscale Meteorological Model 5(MM5) and the TOMS total ozone and aerosol index, the back trajectory was identified using the Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model(HYSPLIT), and the ozone and ozone precursor concentrations were determined using the Urban Ashed Model(UAM). In the presence of sufficiently large concentrations of NO$\sub$x/, the oxidation of CO led to O$_3$ formation with OH, HO$_2$, NO, and NO$_2$ acting as catalysts. The sudden enhancement of O$_3$, CO, NO$_2$ and aerosols was also found to be associated with a deepening cut-off low connected with a surface cyclone and surface anticyclone located to the south of Korea during the Asian dust event. The wave pattern of the upper trough/cut-off low and total ozone level remained stationary when they came into contact with a surface cyclone during the Asian dust event. A typical example of a stratosphere-troposphere exchange(STE) of ozone was demonstrated by tropopause folding due to the jet stream. As such, the secondary maxima of ozone above 80 ppbv that occurred at night in Busan, Korea on 1 May 2001 were considered to result from vertical mixing and advection from a free troposphere-boundary layer exchange in connection with an STE in the upper troposphere. Whereas the sudden enhancement of ozone above 100 ppbv during the day was explained by the catalytic reaction of ozone precursors and transport of ozone from a slow-moving anticyclone area that included a high level of ozone and its precursors coming from China to the south of Korea. The aerosols identified in the free troposphere over Busan, Korea on 1 May 1999 originated from the Taklamakan and Gobi deserts across the Yellow River. In particular, the 1000m profile indicated that the source of the air parcels was from an anticyclone located to the south of Korea. The net flux due to the first invasion of ozone between 0000 LST and 0600 LST on 1 May 1999 agreed with the observed ground-based background concentration of ozone. From 0600 LST to 1200 LST, the net flux of the second invasion of ozone was twice as much as the day before. In this case, a change in the horizontal wind direction may have been responsible for the ozone increase.


STE;tropopause folding;vertical mixing and advection;free troposphere-boundary layer exchange;catalytic reaction;transport;net flux


  1. Bull. Amer. Meteorol. Soc. v.77 Scientific background for AMS Policy statement on atmospheric ozone Hales, J.
  2. Atmo. Environ. v.28 Episode of high ozone concentration at the surface resulting from transport down from the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere : A review and case studies Davies, T. D;E. Schuepbach
  3. J. Geophys. Res. v.106 Spatial and temporal characteristics of dust storms in China and its surrounding regions, 1960-1999: Relations to source area and climate Sun, J.;M. Zhang;T. Liu
  4. Science v.292 Changes in forest biomass carbon storage in China between 1949 and 1998 Fang, J.;A. Chen;C. Peng;S. Zhao;L. Ci
  5. Atmo. Environ. v.28A The climatoloty of the jet stream and stratospheric intrusions of ozone over Japan Austin, J. F.;R. P. Midgley
  6. J. Geophys. Res. v.104 Ozone and aerosol distributions and air mass characteristics over the South Pacific during the burning season Fenn, M. A.;E. V. Browell;C. F. Butter;W. B. Grant;S. A. Kooi;M. B. Clayton;G. L. Gregory;R. E. Newell;Y. Zhu;J. E. Dibb;H. E. Fuelberg;B. E. Anderson;A. R. Bandy;D. R. Blake;J. D. Bradshaw;B. G. Heikes;G. W. Sachse;S. T. Sandholm;H. B. Singh;R. W. Talbot;D. C. Thornton
  7. J. Geophys. Res. v.106 Source analysis of carbon monoxide pollution during INDOX 1999 de Laat, A. T. J.;J. Lelieveld;G. J. Roelofs;R. R. Dickerson;J. M. Lobert
  8. Chemistry of the natural atmosphere Warneck, P.
  9. Atmos. Environ. Mechanism for Asian dust transport during blocking episode days in East Asia and North America in Spring 2001 Kim, Y. K.;H. W. Lee; Y. S. Moon;K. Strong;S. K. Song;Y. K.Lim;I. B. Oh
  10. Tropospheric ozone Mckee, D. J.
  11. Introduction to atmospheric chemistry Hobbs, P.V
  12. Global atmospheric-biospheric chemistry v.1-18 Prinn, R. G.
  13. Volume 6 : Tropospheric ozone research Transport and chemical transformation of pollutants in the troposphere HØv, O
  14. Geophys. Res. Lett. v.18 no.2 In situ detection of tropospheric OH radicals by folded long-path laser absorption : Result from the POPCORN field campain in August 1994 Dorn, H.P.; U. Brandenburger;T. Brauers;M. Hausmann;D. H. Ehhalt
  15. Atmospheric chemistry and physics : From air pollution to climate change Seinfeld, J. H.;S. N. Pandis
  16. J. Air Pollut. Control Assoc. v.33 Ozone measurements from a network of remote sites Evans, G.;P. Finkelstein;B. Martin;N. Possiel;M. Graves
  17. Progress and problems in atmospheric chemistry v.111-171 Barker, J. R.
  18. HYSPLIT(HYbrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model
  19. NATO ASI series v.227 Tropospheric Ozone, Regioal and Global Scale Intractions Isaksen, I. S. A.
  20. Korea. Atmos. Environ. v.36 The Stratosphere-Troposphere Exchange of Ozone and Aerosols over Kim, Y. K.;H. W. Lee;J. K. Park;Y. S. Moon
  21. WMO Global Ozone Research and Monitoring Project Report v.37 UNEP Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion WMO
  22. Geophys. Res. Lett. v.3 OH radicals in the lower troposphere Perner, D.;D. H. Ehhalt;H. W. P$\"{a}$tz;U. Platt;E. P. R$\"{o}$th;A. Volz
  23. J. Geophys. Res. v.103 Influence of springtime weather systems on vertical ozone distributions over three North American sites Cooper, O. R.;J. L. Moody;J. C. Davenport;S. J. Oltmans;B. J. Johnson;X. Chen;P. B. Shepson;J. T. Merrill
  24. J. Atmos. Chem. v.5 measurements of tropospheric OH concentrations ; a comparison of field data with model predictions Perner, D.; U. Platt;M. Trainer;G. H$\"{u}$bler;J. Drumond;W. Jaukermann;J. Rudolph;B. Schubert;A. Volz;D.D. Ehhalt
  25. Introduction to atmospheric chemistry Jacob, D.J.
  26. Atmospheric ozone variability : Implications for climate change, human health and ecosystems Kondratyev, K. Y.;C. Varotsos
  27. Atmos. Environ. v.25 Surface ozone measurements in Lithuania Girdziene, R.
  28. Mesoscale Atmospheric Dispersion Boybeyi, Z.
  29. Quart. J. Roy. Meteorol. Soc. v.117 Lamination in ozone profiles in the lower stratosphere Reid, S. T.;G. Vaughan
  30. Global Change Newsletter v.N30 Tropospheric ozone : An emphasis on IGAC Research Pazenny, A.;G. Brasseur
  31. Geophy. Res. Lett. v.25 Sources of HOx and prodeuction of ozone in the upper troposphere over the United States Jaegle, L.;D. J. J. Jacob;W. H. Brune;D. Tar;I. C. Faloona;A. S. Weinheimer;B. A. Ridley;T. L. Campos;G. W. Sachse
  32. Roy. Soc. Chem. The chemistry of the atmosphere-oxidants and oxidation in the Earths atmosphere Bandy, A. R.