Precipitation Anomalies Around King Sejong Station, Antarctica Associated with E1Niño/Southern Oscillation

  • Kwon, Tae-Yong (Department of Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences Kangnung National University) ;
  • Lee, Bang-Yong (Polar Sciences Laboratory, KORDI)
  • Published : 2002.03.31


Precipitation variability around King Sejong Station related with E1 $Ni\~{n}o$/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is evaluated using the gauge-based monthly data of its neighboring stations. Though three Ant-arctic Stations of King Sejong (Korea), Frei (Chile), and Artigas (Uruguay) are all closely located within 10 km, their precipitation data show mostly insignificant positive or rather negative correlations among them in the annual, seasonal and monthly precipitation. This result indicates that there are locally large variations in the distribution of precipitation around King Sejong Station. The monthly data of Frei Station for 31 years (1970-2000) are analyzed for examining the ENSO signal in precipitation because of its longer precipitation record compared to other two stations. From the analysis of seasonal precipitation, it is seen that there is a tendency of less precipitation than the average during E1 $Ni\~{n}o$ events. This dryness is more distinct in fall to spring seasons, in which the precipitation decreases down to about 30% of seasonal mean precipitation. However, the precipitation signal related with La $Ni\~{n}a$ events is not significant. From the analysis of monthly precipitation, it is found that there is a strong negative correlation during 1980s and in the late 1990s, and a weak positive correlation in the early 1990s between normalized monthly precipitation at Frei Station and Sea Surface Temperature (SST) anomalies in the $Ni\~{n}o$ 3.4 region. However, this relation may be not applied over the region around King Sejong Station, but at only one station, Frei.


  1. Angell, J.K. 1981. Comparison of variations in atmospheric quantities with sea surface temperature variations in the equatorial eastern Pacific. J. Climate, 109,230-243.
  2. Bromwich, D.H. 1988. Snowfall in high southern latitudes. Rev. Geophys., 26, 149-168.
  3. Bromwich, D.H., A.N. Rogers, P. Kallberg, R.I. Cullather, J.W.C. White, and K.J. Kreutz. 2000. ECMWF analysis and reanalysis depiction of ENSO signal in Antarctic precipitation. J. Climate, 13, 1406-1420.<1406:EAARDO>2.0.CO;2
  4. Cullather, R.I., D.H. Bromwich, and M.L. Van Woert. 1996. Interannual variations in Antarctic precipitation related to El Nifio-Southern Oscillation. J. Geophys. Res., 101, 19109-19118.
  5. Gloersen, P. 1995. Modulation of hemispheric sea-ice cover by ENSO events. Nature, 373, 503-506.
  6. Houseago, R.E., G.R. McGregor, J.C.. King, and S.A. Harangozo. 1998. Climate anomaly wave-train patterns linking southern low an high latitudes during South Pacific warm and cold events. Int. J. Climatol., 18, 1181-1193.<1181::AID-JOC332>3.0.CO;2-X
  7. Jacobs, S.S. 1992. Is the Antarctic ice sheet growing? Nature, 360, 29-33.
  8. Jaeger, L. 1976. Monaskarten des Niederschlags fur die ganze Erde. Rep. of the German Weather Service 139, Vol. 18, Offenbach, Germany, 33 p.
  9. Kiladis, G.N. and H.F. Diaz. 1989. Global climatic anomalies associated with extremes in the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 2, 1069-1090.<1069:GCAAWE>2.0.CO;2
  10. Lee, B.Y., D.H. Kim, and Y. Kim. 1990. A study on the climate characteristics over King Sejong Station, Antarctica (1988-1989). Kor. J. Polar Res., 1(1), 47-57(ln Korean).
  11. Lee, BY and J.-e. Nam. 1991. Studies on the characteristics of meteorological elements at King Sejong Station. Kor. J. Polar Res., 2(2), 3-27(In Korean).
  12. Lee, B.Y., Y.-I. Won, and S.-H. Kim. 2000. Annual weather report, Antarctic King Sejong Station(1999). In: Annual Report of Environmental Monitoring on Human Impacts at the King Sejong Station. KORDI ECPPOO 001-02, 269-356 (In Korean).
  13. Meehl, G.A. 1987. The annual cycle and interannual variability in the tropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115,27-50.<0027:TACAIV>2.0.CO;2
  14. Renwick, J.A. 1998. ENSO-related variability in the frequency of South Pacific blocking. Mon. Wea. Rev., 126, 3117-3123.<3117:ERVITF>2.0.CO;2
  15. Ropelewski, C.F. and P.D. Jones. 1987. An extension of the Tahiti-Darwin Southern Oscillation Index. Mon. Wea. Rev., 115,2161-2165.<2161:AEOTTS>2.0.CO;2
  16. Ropelewski, C.F. and M.S. Halpert. 1996. Quantifying Southern Oscillation-precipitation relationships. J. Climate, 9, 1043-1059.<1043:QSOPR>2.0.CO;2
  17. Schwerdtfeger, W. 1984. Developments in atmospheric science 15, Weather and Climate of the Antarctic. Elsevier, 261 p.
  18. Shumway, R.H. 1988. Applied statistical time series analysis. Prentice-Hall, 379 p.
  19. Simmonds, I. and T.H. Jacka. 1995. Relationships between the interannual variability of Antarctic sea ice and the Southern Oscillation. J. Climate, 8, 637-647.<0637:RBTIVO>2.0.CO;2
  20. Smith, S.R. and C.R. Steams. 1993. Antarctic pressure and temperature anomalies surrounding the minimum in the Southern Oscillation index. J. Geophys. Res., 98, 13071-13083.
  21. Testa, J.W, G. Oehlert, D.G. Ainley, J.L. Bengtson, D.B. Siniff, R.M. Laws, and D. Rounsevell. 1991. Temporal variability in Antarctic marine ecosystems: Periodic fluctuations in the Phocid Seals. Can J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 48,631-639.
  22. Trenberth, K.E. 1976. Spatial and temporal variations of the Southern Oscillation. Quart. J. Royal. Meteor. Soc., 102, 639-653.
  23. Trenberth, K.E. 1997. The definition of EI-Nino. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78,2771-2777.<2771:TDOENO>2.0.CO;2
  24. Vincent, D.G. 1994. The South Pacific convergence zone (SPCZ): A review. Mon. Wea. Rev., 122, 1949-1970.<1949:TSPCZA>2.0.CO;2
  25. White, W.B. and R.G. Peterson. 1996. An Antarctic circumpolar wave in surface pressure, wind, temperature and sea-ice extent. Nature, 380, 699-702.
  26. Woo, M.-K., R. Heron, P. Marsh, and P. Steer. 1983. Comparison of weather station snowfall with winter snow accumulation in high Arctic basins. Atmos.-Ocean, 32, 733-755.

Cited by

  1. Aerosol composition and its sources at the King Sejong Station, Antarctic peninsula vol.38, pp.24, 2004,