Study on Wake Roll-Up Behavior Behind Wings In Close Proximity to the Ground

Han, Cheol-Heui;Cho, Jin-Soo

  • 발행 : 2002.11.30


A numerical simulation of wake behavior behind three-dimensional wings in ground effect is done using an indirect boundary element method (Panel Method). An integral equation is obtained by applying Green's 2nd Identity on all surfaces of the flow domain. The AIC is constructed by imposing the no penetration condition on solid surfaces, and the Kutta at the wing's trailing edge. The ground effect is included using an image method. At each time step, a row of wake panels from wings' trailing edge are convected downstream following the force-free condition. The roll-up of wake vortices behind wings in close proximity is simulated.


Numerical Simulation;Indirect Boundary Element Method;Ground Effect;Wake Roll-up


  1. Mizutani, N. and Suzuki, K, Numerical Analysis of 3-D WIG Advancing over the Still Water Surface, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Japan, vol. 174, 35-46(1993).
  2. Park I.R and Chun H.H., Analysis of Steady and Unsteady Performance for 3-D Surface Effect Wing, Journal of the Society of Naval Architects of Korea, Vol. 35, No.3, 14-25(1998).
  3. Ribeiro, RS. and Kroo. I., Vortex-In-Cell Analysis of Wing Wake Roll-Up, J. Aircraft, Vol. 32, No.3, 962-969(1995).
  4. Yeh, D. T. and Plotkin, A, Vortex Panel Calculation of Wake Rollup Behind a Large Aspect Ratio Wing, AIAA Journal, Vol. 24, No.9, 1417-1423(1986).
  5. Rozhdestvensky, K.V. Aerodynamics of a Lifting System in Extreme Ground Effect, Springer-Verlag, 1-22(2001).
  6. Hackett, J.E. and Evans, M.R, Vortex Wakes Behind High-Lift Wings, J. Aircraft, Vol. 8, No. 5,334-340(1971).
  7. Goez, AR, Osborn, RF. and Smith, M.L., Wing-In-Ground effect Aerodynamic Predictions Using PANAIR, AIAA Paper, 84-2429(1984).
  8. VSAERO User's Manual, Analytical Methods, INC., pp.2.23-2.25(1994).
  9. Zhu, K and Takami, H. Effect of Ground on Wake Roll-Up behind a Lifting Surface, Proceedings of the 37th Japan National Congress for Applied Mechanics, Vol. 37, 115-123(1987).
  10. Katz, J. and Plotkin, A, Low-speed Aerodynamics, Cambridge University Press, pp.116-118(2001).