The Effects of Science Question Enhancement Instruction on the Science Question Level and Achievement of Middle School Students

질문 강화 수업이 중학생들의 질문 수준과 학업 성취도에 미치는 영향

  • Published : 2002.12.30


Student questioning is included in the priority of science literacy, to enable students to solve problems by exploring questions, communicating and constructing knowledge(AAAS, 1989). Also, the essence of student questioning in science lies in its function as a link between thinking and learning. But educators did not pay much attention to students' questioning in Korea. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of science question enhancement instruction on students' science questioning level and achievement. Also, this study showed the effects of other variables(logical thinking, science achievement, interest, and gender) on students' science questioning level. The pretest-posttest control group design group design was used. The sample was consisted of 80 second grade middle school students in experimental group(Science question enhancement instruction) and 74 students in control group(Traditional learning). Students in both groups were received identical content instruction on the unit 'Structures and functions of plant'. These groups were treated for 15 hours during 6 weeks. Students' questions were rated using the four levels described by the Middle School Students' Science Question Rating Scale(r= .96,)(Cuccio-Schirripa & Steinner, 2000). Science achievement data were collected using a 17 item multiple choice test(Cronbach ${\alpha}$= .84). To investigate students' logical thinking ability, a abridged GALT(Cronbach ${\alpha}$= .69) was used. Five-way ANOVA, ANCOVA, and multiple regression analysis were used to analyze the results. The results indicated that students who received instruction on researchable questioning outperformed those students who were not instructed on high-order questioning(p< .01). Results of correlations indicated that instruction(r= .640), science achievement(r= .311) and logical thinking ability(r= .212) was significantly and positively related with students' questioning level. But, interest and gender did not show any significant correlation with students' questioning level. Science question enhancement instruction was more effective on science achievement than the traditional instruction(p< .01).


student questioning;science question level;logical thinking ability;science achievement


  1. 교육부(1999). 중학교 교육 과정 해설 (III). 교육부 고시 제 1997-15호
  2. 김진만(1995). 학생의 열과 온도 개념 변화에 있어서 인지 방략적 질문의 역할. 서울대학교 박사학위논문
  3. AAAS(1989). Science for all Americans. NY: Oxford University Press
  4. DeBoer, G. E.(1991). A history of ideas in science education. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University
  5. Hayes, J. R.(1981). The complete problem solver, Philadelphia: Franklin Institute Press
  6. Marbach-Ad, G. & Sokolove, P. G.(2000). Can undergraduate biology student learn to ask higher level questions?. Journal of Research in Science reaching, 37(8), 854-870<854::AID-TEA6>3.0.CO;2-5
  7. Cuccio-Schirripa, S., & Steiner, H. E.(2000). Enhancement and analysis of science question level for middle school students. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 37(2), 210-224<210::AID-TEA7>3.0.CO;2-I
  8. Mills, L. C. & Dean, P. M,(1960). Problem-solving methods in science thinking. New York: Teachers College, Columbia University
  9. Resnick, L. B,(1989). Introduction, In L. B. Resnick(Ed.). Knowiag, learning, and instruction. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1-24
  10. Ennis, R. H.(1985). Goals for the critical thinking curriculum, In A. L. Costa(Ed.), Developing minds: A resource book for teaching thinking. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development
  11. Good, T. L. & Brophy, J.(1995). Educational psychology. New York: Longman
  12. Chiapetta, E. L., Koballa, T. R, Jr., & Collette, A. T.(1998). Science instruction in the middle and secondary schools, 4th ed. NJ : Prentice Hall, Inc.
  13. 김정자(2001). 불일치 상황 제시 수업에서 나타난 고등학생 질문 분석. 한국교원대학교 석사학위논문
  14. 김성근, 여상인, 우규환(1999). 과학 수업에서의 학생 질문에 대한 연구( I )-학생 질문을 강화한 수업의 효과. 한국과학교육학회지, 19(3), 377-388
  15. King, A.(1994). Guiding knowledge construction in the classroom: Effects of teaching child how to question and how to explain. American Education Research Journal, 31(2), 338-368
  16. King, A.(1990). Enhancing peer interaction and learning in the classroom through reciprocal questioning. American Educational Research Journal, 27(4), 664-687
  17. 김은숙(2000). 전문인의 물리 문제 풀이 방략 가시화 연습을 통한 대학생의 질문 향상에 관한 연구. 서울대학교 박사학위논문
  18. Baird J. R. & Mitchell, I. J.(1986). Improving the quality of teaching and learning: An Australian Case-Study - The PEEL Project, Melbourne: Monash University