A case of fused thoracic vertebrae, and lumbar vertebrae, sacrum and ilium of African elephant (Loxodonta africana) were fused one another partially

아프리카코끼리(Loxodonta africana)의 흉추골유합과 요추골, 천골 및 장골이 유합된 1례

  • Kim, Chong-sup (Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Won, Chung-kil (Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Cho, Gyu-hen (Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Cho, Kyu-woan (College of Veterinary Medicine, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Park, Joong-suk (Division of Life Science Biology Major, College of Natural Science, Gyeongsang National University) ;
  • Rho, Gyu-jin (Institute of Animal Medicine, College of Veterinary Medicine, Gyeongsang National University)
  • 김종섭 (경상대학교 수의과대학, 동물학연구소) ;
  • 원청길 (경상대학교 수의과대학, 동물학연구소) ;
  • 조규현 (경상대학교 수의과대학, 동물학연구소) ;
  • 조규완 (충남대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 박중석 (경상대학교 자연과학대학 생명과학부) ;
  • 노규진 (경상대학교 수의과대학, 동물학연구소)
  • Accepted : 2002.06.04
  • Published : 2002.06.29

Abstract

The vertebrae of female African elephant (Loxodonta africana) of twenty-eight years old were observed macroscopically. The result was summarized as follows; the vertebral formula of African elephant was $C_7$ $T_{21}$ $L_3$ $S_4$ $Cd_{21}$. The total length of the vertebral column removed intervertebreal disks was 353 cm. The length of each segment of vertebral column was 44 cm in cervical, 142 cm in thoracic, 21 cm in lumbar, 27 cm in sacral and 119 cm in caudal vertebrae. The 17th and 18th thoracic vertebrae (T) were partially fused each other in four parts: the transverse processes of 17th and 18th T, caudal articular process of 17th T and cranial articular process of 18th T, left mammilary process of 18th T and left transverse process of 17th T, and vertebral arch of 17th and 18th T, respectively. Others partial fusions also observed among the third luwbar, sacrum and ilium. These were in between transverse process of third lumbar vertebra and cranial parts of wing of sacrum, lateral part of sacrum and tuber sacrale, respectively. The sternum was consisted of three pieces; one is a part of anterior prestemum, two is the part from caudal demifacet at second facet to cranial demifacet at third facet in middle mesosternum, which is divided vertically into an half at second and third facets, respectively, and the last is the part between caudal demifacet of third facet in middle mesosternum and the posterior xiphisternum. There are 21 pairs of ribs, six sternal, ten asternal ribs and the last five being floating ribs.

References

  1. 金熏洙, 李昌彦, 盧粉柞, 動物分類學. 集賢社. 서울:414, 1983
  2. 朱誠弼, 動物大白科 弟四卷 大形草食動物. 도서출판아카데미서적, 서울:8-17, 1988
  3. Eales NB. The anatomy of a foetal African elephant 111. The centents of the thoracic and abdomen and the skeleton, Transactirus of the royal society of Edinburgh, 56: 203-246. 1928
  4. Mariappa D. Anatomy and histology of the Indian eleptant. 1st ed, Michigan Indira Publishing House. 3-43, 1986
  5. Smuts MMS, Benzuidenhaut AJ. Osteology of the thoracic limb of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana), Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 60:1-14, 1993
  6. Smuts MMS, Benzuidenhout AJ. Osteology of the pelvic limb of the African elephant (Loxodnota africana). Onderstepoort J Vet Res, 61:51-66, 1994
  7. Van-Dermerwe NJ, Benzuidenhout AJ, Seegers CD. The Skull and mandible of the African elephant (Loxodonta qfricana). Onderstepoort J Vet Res, 62:245-260, 1995
  8. 김무강, 김종섭, 김창기 등. 수의해부학. 정문각, 서울:44-54, 882-888, 1994
  9. 尹錫凲, 家畜比較解劑學. 文運堂, 서울:4-55, 1988
  10. Dyce KM, Sack WO, Wensing CJG. Textbook of veterinary anatomy. 2nd ed. Saunders Co. Philadelphia. 35-91, 816-819. 1986
  11. Getty R. Sisson and Grossman's The anatomy of the domestic animals. 5th ed. W B Saunders Co. Philadelphia, 24-32, 255-348, 741-786, 1790-1801, 1975
  12. 白泳基, 獸醫比較解剖學. 正文閣, 서울:36-111, 1999
  13. 金鍾涉, 金昌愌, 金明玉 등. 脊椎勳物解剖學, 개정판. 營雪出版社, 서울: 181-199, 392-397, 1999
  14. 김종섭, 韓牛송아지의 二顔休. 대학수의학회지, 30:396-400, 1990
  15. 金鍾涉, 닭의 선천성결합. II. 1개의 여분의 후지가 둔부에 부착된 다지기형. 대한수의학회지, 32:235-240, 1991
  16. 金鍾涉, 許贊權, 鄭憲植 등, 韓牛 송아지의 胸府에 여분의 前肢가 부착된 多肢畸形. 大韓獸醫學會誌, 33:1-5, 199
  17. 김종섭, 이종환, 송치원 등. 과다발가락을 가진 한우의 등사지증. 대한수의학회지, 35: 643-649, 1995
  18. 김종섭, 조규현, 이종환 등. Holstein 송아지의 두얼굴증(Diprosopia) 1례, 대한수의학회지, 40:27-34, 2000
  19. 金鍾涉, 安東元, 鄭順熙, 五肢 송아지 臀部에 부착된 過剩後肢와 過剩尾를 가진 二臀體. 大韓獸醫擧會誌, 30:401-406, 1990
  20. Kim CS, Yeon SC, Cho GH et at. Polymelia with two extra forelimbs at the right scapular region in a male Korean nadve calf. J Vet Med Sci, 63:1161-1164, 2001
  21. 신기철, 신용철. 새우리말 큰사전. 7판. 삼성출판사, 서울:604, 1981
  22. 김종섭, 이종환, 김은희 등. 한우암소의 목부위에 2개의 여분의 전지가 부착된 과다사지. 대한수의학회지, 35:651-657, 1995