Staphylokinase production mediated by lysogenic conversion in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from bovine mastitis

젖소 유방염유래 Staphylococcus aureus에서 용원변환에 의한 staphylokinase 산생

  • Park, Cheong-Kyu (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University) ;
  • Lim, Tae-Sun (Department of Veterinary Medicine, Kyungpook National University)
  • 박청규 (경북대학교 수의과대학) ;
  • 임태선 (경북대학교 수의과대학)
  • Accepted : 2002.04.23
  • Published : 2002.06.29


Staphylokinase is seldom formed by animal Staphylococcus aureus strains. In this study, 76(72.4%) of 105 Staph aureus strains isolated from bovine mastitis were found to produce a staphylokinase. These staphylokinase producing strains were tested for lysogenic conversion by means of delysogenization procedure and isolation of serotype B and F converting phages. By the application of delysogenization method comprised of UV irradiation and acriflavine treatment to 76 staphylokinase-positive strains, the delysogenized cells could be observed in 29(38.2%) of the strains and delysogenization rates in 16(55.2%) of 29 delysogenized strains were 0.9% or less. A total of 7 serological group F phages were isolated from 76 staphylokinase-positive strains, and these phages could be again divided into three groups by the immunity reaction. Of 7 serotype F phages, 2 were isolated from the original lysogenic strains producing colonies of delysogenized cells after delysogenizing treatments and 5 were isolated from strains in which delysogenized cells were not observed after delysogenizing treatments. Difference of sensitivities to serological group F phages between original lysogenic strains and strains from which delysogenized cells were not isolated after delysogenizing treatments was not observed These data suggest that staphylokinase production of the remaining 42 strains might be also mediated by lysogenic conversion.


  1. Roberson JR, Fox LK, Hancock DD, et al. Evaluation of methods for differentiation of coagulase-positive staphylococci. J Clin Microbiol, 30: 3217- 3219, 1992
  2. Harmon RJ, Langlois BE, Akers K. A simple medium for the verification of identity of Staphylococcus aureus of bovine origin. J Dairy Sci, 74(Suppl. 1): 202, 1991
  3. Shimizu A, Kawano J, Kimura S. Biotyping of coagulase - positive StaphyIococcus aweus and Sta-phylococcus intermedius strains isolated from various animals in Japan. Jpn J Vet Sci, 48 : 1227-1235, 1986
  4. Meyer W. Differenzierungsschema f$\ddot{u}$r Standortvarianten von Staphylococcus aureus. Zbl Bakt Hyg, Abt I Orig, A201: 465-481, 1966
  5. Devriese LA, Oeding P. Characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different animal species. Res Vet Sci, 21: 284-291, 1976
  6. Witte W, Hummel R, Meyer W, et al. Ecology of Staphylococcus aureus: Characterization of strains from chicken. Z Allg Mikrobiol, 17 : 639-646, 1977
  7. Dimitracopoulos G, Sakellariou C, Papavassiliou J. Staphylococci from the feces of different animal species : Biotypes of Staphylococcus aureus strains of sheep and goat origin. Appl Environ Microbiol, 32: 53-55, 1976
  8. Hajek V, Magsalek E. The differentiation of pathogenic staphylococci and a suggestion for their taxonomic classification. Zbl Bakt Hyg, Abt I Orig, A217: 176-182, 1971
  9. Hajek V. Staphylococcus intermedius, a new species isolated from animals. Int J Syst Bacteriol, 26: 401-408, 1976
  10. Devriese LA. A simplified system for biotyping Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from different animal species. J Appl Bacteriol, 56: 215-220, 1984
  11. Winkler KC, de Waart J, Grootsen C, et al. Lysogenic conveision of staphylococci to loss of $\beta$ -toxin. J Gen Microbiol, 39: 321-333, 1965
  12. Kondo I, Fujise K. Serotype B staphylococcal bacteriophage singly converting staphylokinase. Infect Immun, 18:266-272, 1977
  13. Park CK, Seo MS. Isolation and characteristics of seiotype F staphylococcal phage singly converting staphylokinase. Korean J Vet Res, 40: 49-55, 2000
  14. Mason RE, Allen WE Characteristics cf Staphylococcus aureus associated with lysoganic conversion to loss of beta-hemolysin production. Can J Microbiol, 21:1113-1116, 1975
  15. Devriese LA, Van de Kerckhove A. A comparison of methods used for testing staphylokinase(fibrinolysin) production in Staphylococcus strains. Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, 46: 457-465, 1980
  16. Hinton NA, Orr JH. The distribution of toxins in coagulase-positive staphylococci isolated from infections and carriers. J Lab Clin Med, 50: 912. 1957
  17. Kondo I, Fujise K, Sakurai S. Staphylokinase mediated by lysogenic conversion. Zbl Bakt Parasit Infect Hyg, Abt l Suppl 5, 529-538, 1976
  18. Kondo I, Nakahara H, Ishikawa T, et al. Simple effective method for delysogenizing Staphylococcus aureus. Jikeikai Med J, 23 : 223-231, 1976
  19. Dowell CE, Rosenblum ED. Serology and transduction in staphylococcal phage. J Bact, 84: 1071-1075, 1962
  20. Rountree PM. Serological studies of the multiplication of a staphylococcal bacteriophage. Aust J Eptl Biol Med Sci, 30: 567-587, 1952
  21. Coleman DC, Sullivan DJ, Russell RJ, et al. Staphylococcus aureus bacteriophages mediating the simultaneous lysogenic conversion of $\beta$-lysm, staphy lokinase and enterotoxin A : Molecular mechanism of triple oanversion. J Gen Microbiol, 135: 1679-1697, 1989
  22. Coleman DC, Arbuthnott JP, Pomeroy HM, et al. Cloning and expression in Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus of the beta-lysin determinant from Staphylococcus aureus : Evidence that bacteriophage conversion of beta-lysin acdvity is caused by insertional inactivation of the beta-lysin determinant. Microb Pathogen, 1: 549-564, 1986
  23. Lee CY, Iandolo JJ. Structural analysis of staphylococcal bacteriophage $\phi$11 attachment sites. J Bact, 170: 2409-2411, 1988
  24. Carroll JD, Cafferkey MT, Coleman DC. Serotype F double-and triple-converting phage insertionally inactivate the Staphylococcus aureus $\beta$-toxin determinant by a common molecular mechanism. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 106: 147-156, 1993
  25. Borecka P, Rosypal S, Pantucek R, et al. Localization of prophage of serological group B and F on restriction fragments defined in the resreiction map of Staphylococcus aureus NCTC 8325. FEMS Microbiol Lett, 143: 203-210, 1996