Evaluation of Cleanness and Physical Properties of W/O Microemulsion

W/O Microemulsion 세정제의 물성 및 세정성 평가

  • Received : 2002.04.16
  • Accepted : 2002.08.22
  • Published : 2002.12.01

Abstract

Using four components - nonionic surfactants, water, hydrocarbon oil and an alcohol as cosurfactant, 12 types of cleaning agents were prepared, and their physical properties such as surface tension, viscosity, electroconductivity and phase stability were measured. As the formulated cleaning agents have low surface tensions(30.5-31.1 dyne/cm) and low viscosities (1.6-7.2 c.p.), they are satisfied with the general physical properties of water-in-oil(W/O) microemulsions for their industrial use. They showed a tendency that their temperature range for stable one-phase microemulsion decreased in accordance with the increase of alcohol/surfactant(A/S) ratio in the formulations. However, the temperature range of one-phase microemulsion was much more affected by hydrophilic lipophillic balance(HLB) value of the nonionic surfactant which increased its temperature range and it increased in accordance with the higher HLB value in the formulations. And the maximum content of water which can keep stable one-phase W/O microemulsion was measured at each sample. In addition, their temperature range for stable one-phase microemulsion was also measured. It was confirmed that the selection of surfactant type was very important for formulating a cleaning agent, since the W/O microemulsion system with the nonionic surfactant of the lower HLB value showed better cleaning efficacy that of the higher HLB value for abietic acid as a soil, which was used for preparing a rosin-type flux. In the formulated cleaning agents with the increase of A/S ratio in the formulations, however, there was no significant difference in cleaning efficacy. It was investigated that the differences of their cleaning efficacy was affected by the change of the condition of temperature and sonicating frequency as important factors in the industrial cleaning. That is, the higher, their cleaning temperature and the lower, their sonicating frequency, the more increased, their cleaning efficacy. Furthermore, using optical instruments like UV/Visable Spectrophotometer and FT-IR Spectrometer, their cleaning efficacy for abietic acid was measured. The removal of soil from the contaminated rinse water was measured by gravity separation method in the rinse bath. As a result, the cleaning agent system having the nonionic surfactant of HLB value 6.4 showed over 85% water-oil separation efficacy at over $25^{\circ}C$. Therefore, it was demonstrated in this work that the formulating cleaning agents were very effective for cleaning and economical in the possible introduction of water recycling system.

Nonionic surfactant/water/탄화수소 오일/alcohol의 4성분계 시스템에서 12종의 조성물을 제조하여 물성 평가를 수행한 결과, 30.5-31.1 dyne/cm의 낮은 표면장력의 값과, 1.6-7.2 c.p.의 낮은 점도의 물성을 보여 산업용 세정제로서의 기본 물성을 보여주었다. 이들 조성물들이 안정한 단일상으로 존재하는 온도의 범위는 alcohol/surfactant(A/S)비의 증가에 따라 감소되는 경향을 보이고 있으나, 전체적으로는 계면활성제의 hydrophilic lipophilic balance(HLB) 값에 크게 영향을 받고 있으며, HLB 값이 높을수록 안정하게 존재하는 온도 영역이 증가되는 경향을 보여주고 있다. 그리고 각각의 조성물에 물의 함량을 증가 시켜 안정한 단일상이 유지되는 물의 최대 함유량을 측정한 결과 HLB 값이 낮은 계면활성제를 사용하였을 경우 HLB 값이 6.4인 비이온 계면활성제를 사용할 경우 22.1%까지도 물을 함유할 수 있었고, 물의 양이 증가됨에 따라서 단일상으로 존재하는 온도영역은 좁아졌다. 오염원으로 플럭스 제조에 사용되는 abietic acid에 대한 세정 효율을 UV/Visable Spectrophotometer와 FT-IR Spectrometer와 같은 분석기기를 이용하여 검토하여 본 결과, 비이온 계면활성제의 HLB 값이 낮을수록 높은 세정 효율을 보여주어, W/O microemulsion의 경우 비이온 계면활성제에 따른 세정력의 변화가 매우 큼을 확인 할 수 있었다. 그러나 A/S의 비가 증가에 따른 세정효율의 차이는 별다른 경향을 보이지 않았다. 또한 산업세정에 있어서 중요한 세정 요소로 작용하는 변수인 온도 변화와 초음파 주파수의 변화에 따른 세정효율을 측정한 결과, 온도가 높을수록 그리고 초음파의 주파수가 낮을수록 높은 세정력을 보여주었다. 세정 공정 중 린스조에서의 유분 오염물이 함유된 린스액의 유수분리 효율을 측정한 결과, HLB 값이 6.4인 비이온 계면활성제를 사용한 시스템의 경우 $25^{\circ}C$ 이상에서 85% 이상의 높은 제거 효율을 보여, 효율적인 세정 및 관리가 가능한 것으로 판단되었다.

Acknowledgement

Supported by : 산업자원부

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