Soluble IL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and Neopterin as Immunologic Markers in Patients with Tuberculosis

결핵 환자에서 면역학적 지표로서의 sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$, Neopterin에 관한 연구

  • Ryu, Yon-Ju (Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Women's University, College of Medicine) ;
  • Ryu, Kum-Hei (Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Women's University, College of Medicine) ;
  • Kim, Su-Hyun (Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Women's University, College of Medicine) ;
  • Lee, Jong-Soo (Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Women's University, College of Medicine) ;
  • Cheon, Seon-Hee (Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Women's University, College of Medicine) ;
  • Seoh, Ju-Young
  • 류연주 (이화여자대학교 의과대학 내과학교실) ;
  • 유금혜 (이화여자대학교 의과대학 내과학교실) ;
  • 김수현 (이화여자대학교 의과대학 내과학교실) ;
  • 이종수 (이화여자대학교 의과대학 내과학교실) ;
  • 천선희 (이화여자대학교 의과대학 내과학교실) ;
  • 서주영 (이화여자대학교 의과대학 미생물학교실)
  • Published : 2002.09.30

Abstract

Background : The cell-mediated immune response plays an important role in tuberculosis. After being activated by mycobacterial antigens, T lymphocytes express a high affinity receptor (IL-2R) for interleukin-2 (IL-2) on their own surface and release a soluble fraction of the IL-2 receptor (sIL-2R) from the cell membrane into the circulation. Neopterin is a metabolite of guanosine-triphosphate, which is produced by stimulated macrophages under the influence of IFN-$\gamma$ with a T lymphocyte origin. Therefore, the utility of sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and the neopterin levels as immunologic indices of the cell-mediated immune response and severity of disease in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis was assessed. Methods : The serum sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin levels were measured in 39 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis, 6 patients with tuberculous lymphadenitis prior to treatment and 10 healthy subjects. The serum and pleural sIL-2R, neopterin and ADA levels were measured in 22 patients with tuberculous pleurisy. The patients with pulmonary tuberculosis were divided into a mild, moderate and severe group according to the severity by ATS guidelines. To compare the results from these patients with those of the pretreatment levels, the sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin levels were measured in 36 of the 39 patients(1 patient, expired; 2 patients were referred to a sanitarium) with pulmonary tuberculosis after 2 months of treatment. Results : 1) the serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels were elevated in patients with tuberculosis when compared to those of healthy subjects (p>0.05). The neopterin concentration in the serum was significantly lower in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis($2967{\pm}2132.8$ pg/ml) than in healthy controls($4949{\pm}1242.1$ pg/ml)(p<0.05). 2) In the pulmonary tuberculosis group, the serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels were higher in patients with severe disease than those in patients with mild and moderate disease. However, the neopterin levels declined as the pulmonary tuberculosis became more severe (p<0.01). 3) The mean serum sIL-2R and IFN-$\gamma$ levels declined from $1071{\pm}1139.4$ U/ml to $1023{\pm}1920.9$ U/ml(p>0.05), $41{\pm}52.8$ pg/ml to $22{\pm}23.9$ gm/ml(p<0.05), respectively, after 2 month of treatment. The mean serum neopterin levels increased from $3158{\pm}2272.6$ pg/ml to $3737{\pm}2307.5$ pg/ml(p>0.05) after a 2 month of treatment. These findings were remarkable in the severe group of pulmonary tuberculosis with a clinical correlation. 4) In the patients with tuberculous pleurisy, the serum sIL-2R and ADA were significantly higher than those in the pleural fluid, However, the neopterin levels in the sera and pleural effusion were similar. Conclusion : On the basis of this study, sIL-2R, IFN-$\gamma$ and neopterin measurements may not only provide an insight into the present state of the cell-mediated immune response, but also serve as parameters monitoring of the prognosis of the disease, particularly in patients with severe pulmonary tuberculosis. In addition, an assay of the pleural sIL-2R levels might signal a stimulated local immunity including T cell activation in the tuberculous pleural effusion.