Crystal Structure and Thermal Stability Study on Tetrabutylammonium Hexamolybdate [n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19](TBAM)

  • Zhao, Pu Su (Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Nanjing University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Zhao, Zhan Ru (New Materials & Function coordination Chemistry Laboratory. Qingdao University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Jian, Fang Fang (New Materials & Function coordination Chemistry Laboratory. Qingdao University of Science and Technology) ;
  • Lu, Lu De (Materials Chemistry Laboratory, Nanjing University of Science and Technology)
  • Published : 2003.12.20


The crystal structure of $[n-Bu_4N]_2[Mo_6O_{19}]$(TBAM) (n-Bu4N=tetrabutylammonium) has been determined by X-ray crystallography. It crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group C2/c, with lattice parameters ${\alpha}$=16.314(5), b=17.288(5), c=17.776(4)${\AA}$ ${\beta}$=101.47(3), and Z=4. In $[Mo_6O{19}]^{2-}$ anion, Mo atoms occupy six vertices of octahedron and each Mo atom is coordinated by six oxygen atoms to adopt distorted octahedral coordination geometry. The average bond distance of Mo-Ot (terminal), Mo-Ob (bridged) and Mo-Oc (central) are 1.680 ${\AA}$, 1.931 ${\AA}$ and 2.325 ${\AA}$ respectively. In $[n-Bu_4N]^+$ cation, the N atom possesses a slightly distorted tetrahedral geometry. There are some potential extensive C-H ${\cdots}$ O hydrogen bonds in the lattice, by which connecte molecules and stabilize the crystal structure. Thermogravimetric analysis suggests that thermal decomposition of the title compound includes two transitions and it loses weight at 356.0 and 803.5 $^{\circ}$, respectively, and the residue presumable be $Mo_2O_2$. Accordingly, the title compound has high thermal stability.


Isopolyoxomolybdate;Tetrabutylammonium;Crystal Structure;Thermalstability


It is well known that polyoxoanions conjugated with organic molecules have the abilitiy for photo-chromism, and that photochromism involving these compounds is truly reversible.1-7 In order to prepare rversible photochromism materials, photochromism materials, photosensitive organic molecules as donor and Type I polyoxometalate anions having easily reduced properties8 as accptor have been adopted. Such naions are still of interest because of their high electron acceptor capability.9 Xu et al has reported reversible photochromism charge-transfer salt using photosensitive tetrabutylammonium (TBA) as donor and the hex-amolybdate dianion as acceptor under ultraviolet irrdiation.10 However. the crystal structure of tetrabutylammonium hexamolybdate[n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19](TBAM) hasnever been reported. Inthis paper, we report the crystal structure of TBAM, and the thermal stability of it.



Hydrothermal synthesis of TBAM. An acetonitrile solution of the tetrabutylammonium bromide(TBABr) and isopolyoxomolybdate are mixed with stirring and its pH value was adjusted to 6 with dilution HCI, then the mixture was sealed in a 25mL stainless-steel reactor with Teflon liner at 100℃ for 72h, resulting in the formation of the light blue crystals of the title complex. Yield: 85%. Calc. for C32H72Mo6N2O19:C, 28.16%; H, 5.31%; N, 2.05%. Anal. Found: C, 28.01%; H, 4.98%; N, 1.97%

X-ray structure determinatio. The selected crytal of [n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19] was mounted on an Rigaku Raxis-Ⅳ diffractometer. Reflection data were measured at 293K, wsing graphite monochromated M0-Kα(λ=0.71073 Å) radiation ω scan mode. Intensities were corrected for Lorentz and polarization effects and empirical absorption, and te data reduction using SADABS program.11 The structure were solved by direct methods using SHELX-97.12 All the nonhydrogen atoms were refined on F2 anistropically by full-matrix least squares method. The hydroge atom positions were fixed geometrically at calculated distances and alowed to ride on the parent carbon atoms. The contributions of these hydrogen atoms were included instructure-factor calculations. The final least-square cycle gave R=0.0334, Rw=0.0563 for 2572 reflections with I>2σ(I); the weighting scheme, w= 1/[σ2(F02)+(0.0259P)2+0.0000P], where P=(F02)+2F02)/3. Atomic scatteringfactors and anomalous dispersion corrections were taken from International Table for X-ray Crystallography.13 A summary of the key crystallographic information is given in Table 1. The final position parameters of nonhydrogen atoms are given in Table 2. Selected bond lengths(Å), possible hydrogen bonds (Å) and bond angles(°) are presented in Table 3, respectively.

Table 1.Summary of Crystallographic Results for [n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19]

Table 2.Atomic coordinates(×104) and equivalent isotropic displacement parameters(Å2×103). U(eq) is defined as one thied of the trace of the orthogonalizad Uij tensor.

Table 3.Symmetry transformations used to generate



Structure. The crystal structure of the complex [n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19] consists of symmetry [Mo6O19]2- anion and two [n-Bu4N]+ cations. Fig. 1 shows a perspective view of the title compound with atomic numbeing scheme, and Fig. 2 shows a perspective view of the crystal packing in the unit cell.

Fig. 1.Molecular structure for [n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19] with the atomic numbering scheme.

Fig. 2.A view of the crystal packing down the a axis for [n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19]

In [Mo6O19]2- anion, six Mo atoms locate at the six vertexes of slightly distorted octahedron and nineteen oxygen atoms are divided into three categories, with one oxygen atom lying in the central of above octahedron(Oc), six oxygen atoms occupying the terminal positions of above octahedron(Ot) and twelve oxygen as birdged atoms(Ob) birdging six Moatoms, respetively. All the angels of Mo-Oc-Mo are nearly 90° or 180°. Each Mo atom possesses a distorted octahedral coordination geometry, which is coordinated by six oxygen atoms with the central atom and one terminal oxygen atom in axial positon, and four bridged oxygen atoms occupying equatorial position. As seen from the Table 3, the trans bond angles forming by terminal oxygen atom, Mo atom and central oxygen atom are close to 180° and the cis angles of O-Mo-O are nearly to 90°. Because of the existence of birdged oxygen atoms, the angles of opposite Ob-Mo-Ob are all smaller than 180° with average Ob-Mo-Ob about 153°. The average bond distance of Mo-Ot 1.680Å equates to that in TPPM[TPPM=bis(2,4,6-triphenylpyryllium) hexamolybdate], the distance Mo-Ob 1.931Å and Mo-Oc 2.325Å are longer than thse in TPPM[Mo-Ob 1.917Å and Mo-Oc 2.312 Å]10. but all these values are in the range of with those reported previously.14-15 In the slight distorted octahedral geometry of [Mo6O19]2- anion, three σh symmertrical planes were occupied by thre molecular planes, each of which contained thirteen atoms(four Mo atoms, four Ob atoms, four Ot atoms and one Oc atom) and the largest deviations of which are 0.012, 0.045 and 0.016Å, respectively. The above three molecular planes are almost vertical each other, with the dihedral 89.82, 89.90 and 89.92°, respectively.

In the [n-Bu4N]+ cation, the N atom adopts a slightly dstorted terahedral geometry with the C-N-C bond angles ranging from 108.1° to 111.5°. The C-N and C-Cbond lengths fall within the normal rang.

There are some potentially weak(C-H⋯Y hydrogen bond, Y=O) interactions in the lattice.16-17 The O(3) atom with C(6) atom in [n-Bu4N]+ cation forms potentially weak C-H⋯O intramolecular interaction, the donor and acceptor distance being 3.2600Å for C(8)-H(8B)⋯O(1)(symmetry code: 1/2x, 1/2-y,-z). The bond angles of C(6)-H(6A)⋯O(3) and C(8)-H(8B)⋯O(1) are 164.86° and 131.18°, respectively. Inthe solid state, these interactions together with electrostatic forces connected molecules and stabilize the crystal structures

Thermogravimetric analysis. The curves of the thermogravimetric(TG) analysis and differential thermal gravimetric(DTG) analysis for the title compound are shown in the Fig. 3. It can be seen that the thermal decomposition of the compound includes two transitions There are two edothermic peaks, one intense heat-absorbing peak at 356.0℃ and the other at 803.5℃. It shows no decomposition before 356.0℃; but at 356.0℃, decomposition occurs. On the base of weight changes in the TG curve, the first process of the weight loss (40.42%) corresponds to the loss of two [n-Bu4N]+ groups and four oxygen atoms of [Mo6O19]2- anions (found 40.42%, calc. 40.16%) (356.0-600.0 ℃), with an intense endothermic phenomenon; the second process of the weight loss (42.86%) is attributed to the further decomposition of the [Mo6O15] group and the residue may be Mo2O2 (found 16.41%, clac.16.72%)(600.0-803.5℃). The title compound also has high thermal stability.

Fig. 3.TG/DTG curves of [n-Bu4N]2[Mo6O19].


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