Effect of Molokhia (Corchorus olitorius) and Its Mucilage on Cholesterol Metabolism in High Cholesterol Fed Rats

몰로키아가 고 콜레스테롤 식이를 투여한 흰쥐에서의 콜레스테롤 대사에 미치는 영향

  • Published : 2003.06.01


Effects of molokhia (Corchorus olitorius) and its mucilage on in vitro bile acid adsorption capacity and lipid composition using cholesterol-fed SD rats were investigated. Mucilage showed stronger affinity toward bile acid than hot water extract of molokhia powder. As the extracting temperature increased from 50 to $80^{\circ}C$, bile acid binding capacity of mucilage also increased from 41 to 83%. When molokhia powder or its mucilage added into cholesterol diet at 5 or 10% levels (as fiber source) was compared with cellulose-added group, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels of plasma showed no significant differences, whereas, HDL-cholesterol level of cellulose group significantly increased. Accumulation of cholesterol and triglyceride in liver were significantly inhibited in molokhia and mucilage groups. Molokhia and mucilage lowered the liver weights significantly. As the concentration of molokhia or mucilage increased, cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the liver was lowered. Cholesterol and triglyceride excreted through feces were significant increased in molokhia- or mucilage-fed group, with excretion of cholesterol by molokhia-fed group being mere distinct.


molokhia;mucilage;cholesterol;bile acid


  1. Gordon, D.T. Total dietary fiber and mineral absorption. Korean J. Nutr. 25: 429-449 (1992)
  2. Wright, R.W, Anderson, J.W. and Bridges, S.R. Propionate inhibits hepatic lipid synthesis. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 195: 26-29 (1990) https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-195-43113
  3. El-Mahdy, A.R. and EI-Sebaiy, L.A. Preliminary studies on the mucilage extracted from okara fruits, taro tubers, jew's mellow leaves and fenugreek seeds. Food Chem. 14: 237-249 (1984) https://doi.org/10.1016/0308-8146(84)90079-7
  4. Boyd, G.S., Eastwood, M.A. and Maclean, N. Bile acids in the rat: studies in experimental in man. J. Lipid Res. 7: 83-94 (1966)
  5. Folch, J., Lee, M. and Sloane-Stanley, G.H. A simple method for the isolation and purification of total lipids from animal tissues. J. Biol. Chem. 226: 467-509(1957)
  6. Innami, S., Nakamura, K., Tabata, K., Wada, M. and Takita, T. Water-soluble viscous substance of jew's mellow leaves lower serum and liver cholesterol concentrations and increases fecal steroid steroid excretion in rat fed a high cholesterol diet. J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol. 41: 465-475 (1995) https://doi.org/10.3177/jnsv.41.465
  7. Higgins, M. and Thom, T. Trends in CHD in the United States. Int. J. Epidemiol. 18: 58-66 (1989) https://doi.org/10.2188/jea.18.58
  8. Superko, H.R., Haskell, w., Dawrey-Kubicek, L. and Farquhar, J.W. Effect of solid and liquid guar gum on plasma cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations in moderate hypercholesterolemia. Am. J. Cardiol. 62: 51-55 (1988) https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9149(88)91363-X
  9. lnnami, S., Tabata, K., Shimizu, J., Kusunoki, K., Ishida, H., Matsuguma, M., Wada M., Sugiyama, N. and Kondo, M. Dried green leaf powders of jew's mellow (Corchorus), persimmon (Disophyros kaki) and sweet potato (Ipomoea hatatas) lower hepatic cholesterol concentration and increase fecal bile acid excretion in rats fed a cholesterol-free diet. Plant Foods Human Nutr. 52: 55-65 (1998) https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1008031028484
  10. Azuma, K., Nakayama, M., Koshioka, M., Ippoushi, K., Yamaguchi, Y., Kohata, K., Yamauchi, Y., Ito, H. and Higashio, H. Phenolic antioxidant from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. J. Agric. Food Chem. 47: 3963-3966 (1999) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf990347p
  11. Oshodi, A.A. Comparison of protein, minerals and vitamin C contents of some dried leafy vegetables. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 35: 267-269 (1992)
  12. American Heart Association. Dietary guidelines for healthy American adults: a statement for physicians and health professionals by the Nutrition Committee. Circulation 74: 1465-1468 (1986)
  13. Swain, J.E., Rouse, I.L., Curley, C.B. and Sacks, F.M. Comparison of the effects of oat bran and low-fiber wheat on serum lipoprotein levels and blood pressure. New Engl. J. Med. 322: 147-152 (1990)
  14. Stasse-Wolthuis, M., Hautvast, J., Hermus, R., Katan, M., Bausch, J.E., Rietberg-Brussaard, J.H., Velema, J.P., Zondervan, J.H., Eastwood, M.A. and Brydon, W.G. The effect of a natural high-fiber diet on serum lipids, fecal lipids, and colonic function. Am. J.Clin. Nutr. 32: 1881-1888 (1979)
  15. Adiotomore, J., Eastwood, M.A., Edwards, C.A. and Brydon, W.G. Dietary fiber: in vitro methods that anticipate nutrition and metabolic activity in human. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 52: 128-134 (1990)
  16. Park, S.H., Lee, Y.K. and Lee, H.S. The effect of dietary fiber feeding in gastrointestinal functions and lipid and glucose metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 27: 311-322 (1994)
  17. Klopfenstein, C.E. The role of cereal $\beta$-glucans in nutrition and health. Cereal Foods World 10: 865-872 (1988)
  18. Yang, J.L., Suh, M.J. and Song, Y.S. Effect of dietary fibers on cholesterol metabolism in cholesterol-fed rats. J. Korean Soc. Food Sci. 25: 392-398 (1996)
  19. Nishina, P.M. and Freedland, R.A. The effects of dietary fiber on cholesterol metabolism in rats. J. Nutr. 120: 800-805 (1990)
  20. Kritchevsky, D. and Story, J.A. Influence of dietary fiber on cholesterol metabolism in experimental animals, pp. 163-178. In: CRC Handbook of Dietary Fiber in Human Nutrition. Spiller, G.A. (ed.). CRC Press, Boca Raton, USA (1993)
  21. Vahouny, G.V., Khalafi, R., Satchithanandam, S., Watkins, D.W., Story, J.A., Cassidy, M.M. and Kritchevsky, D. Dietary fiber supplementation and fecal bile acids, neutral steroids and divalent cations in rats. J. Nutr. 117: 2009-2015 (1987)
  22. Farag, R.S., EI-Khwas, H.A.M. and Mohamed, M.S. Distribution of carotenoids insome fresh and boiled foods. Adv. Food Sci. 20: 1-6 (1998)
  23. Nishina, P.M., Schneeman, B.O. and Freedland, R.A. Effects of dietary fibers on nonfasting plasma lipoprotein and apolipoprotein levels in rats. J. Nutr. 121: 431-437 (1991)
  24. Jung, C.H, Choi, I.W., Kim, H.M. and Seog, H.M. Physicochemical properties of domestic molokhia (Corchorus olitoriusi. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 34: 757-761 (2002)