Physico-Chemical Properties of Korean Traditional Soybeans

우리나라 전통콩의 이화학적 특성 연구

  • Published : 2003.06.01

Abstract

The physicochemical characteristics and chemical compositions of six Korean traditional soybeans were studied namely, cheongtae, seoritae, jinjoori, subaktae, yutae and huktae. The characteristics of imported soybean were also investigated for comparison. The average weight of one hundred-seed for huktae, which is normally used as nutritional supplement by adding to rice during cooking, was 43.1 g. The average whole length and long and short width for six varieties of the bean were $5.68{\sim}10.15\;mm$, $5.10{\sim}9.33\;mm$ and $4.30{\sim}7.48\;mm$, respectively. Color of cheongtae and subaktae were green, while that of seoritae, jinjoori, and huktae were black with yutae having yellow seed coat. Moisture, crude fat, crude protein and ash content of soybean seeds were all in the ranges of $8.5{\sim}11.5%$, $14.0{\sim}20.8%$, $38.0{\sim}49.2%$ and $4.2{\sim}5.0%$, respectively, showing differences among cultivars. Methionine, cysteine and histidine were the minor components of soybean protein and percentage of methionine to the total proteins showed significant varietal differences. Subaktae contained the highest content of methionine with 4.0 mg/g protein, while jinjoori the lowest with 1.8 mg/g protein. The main fatty acids of total lipid were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acids, which comprised over 80% of total fatty acids. Cultivar yutae had higher content of neutral lipid but lower content of glycolipid and phospholipid. Among the fatty acids, content of linoleic acid were the highest $(41.4{\sim}54%)$ and ratios of unsaturated fatty acid to the total fatty acid was $82.7{\sim}85.2%$. The main fatty acid of neutral lipid, glycolipid, and phospholipid was linoleic acid.

Keywords

Korea traditional;soybean;protein;lipid;fatty acid;amino acid

References

  1. Coward, L., Barnes, N.C., Setchell, K.D.R. and Barness, S. Genistein, daidzein and their $\beta$-glycoside conjugates: Antitumor isoflavones in soybean foods from American and Asian diets. J. Agric. Food Chern. 41: 1961-1967 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1021/jf00035a027
  2. Kim, S.D., Kim, Y.H., Hong, E.H. and Park, E.H. Seed characteristics of black soybean collections in Korea. Korean J. Crop Sci. 38: 437-441 (1993)
  3. Chung, W.K. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of soybean sprouts in relation to soybean sultivars and culture period. Ph.D. dissertation, Seoul National Univ., Seoul, Korea (1998)
  4. Brim, C. A. and Burton, J. W. Recurrent selection in soybean II. Selection for increased percent protein in seeds. Crop Sci. 19: 494-498 (1979) https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1979.0011183X001900040016x
  5. Erickson, D.R., Pryde, E.H., Brekke, O.L., Mounts, T.L. and Fallo, R.A. Handbook of Soy Oil Processing and Utilization, pp. 13-31, AOCS Press, Champaign, IL, USA (1980)
  6. Shin, H.C., Sung, H.S., Lee, Y.S. and Sohn, H.S. Nutritional adequacy and beneficial effects of soy formula. Soybean Digest 18: 10-25 (2001)
  7. Kim, D.M., Jin, J.S. and Kim, K.H. Morphological characteristics and proximate compositions of the recommended soybean varieties in Korea. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 22: 398-404 (1990)
  8. Jung, C.S., Baek, I.Y and Ko, M.S. Ecological characteristics of color-soybean collections. Korean J. Crop Sci. 41: 173-177 (1996)
  9. AOAC. Official Methods of Analysis. 16th ed. The Scientific Association Dedicated to Analytical Excellence. pp. 17-24. Washington, D.C., USA (2000)
  10. Liu, K. Chemical and nutritional value of soybean components. pp. 25-36. In: Soybeans: Chemistry, Technology, and Utilization, Liu, K. (ed.). Chapman & Hall, New York, USA (1997)
  11. Kim, K.-S., Kim, M.-J., Park, J.-S., Shon, H.-S. and Kwon, D.Y. Compositions of functional components of traditional Korean soybeans. Food Sci. Biotechnol.12: 157-160 (2003)
  12. Waters. AccQ-Tag Amino Acid Analysis System. Operator's Manual (1993)
  13. Lee, I.B., Choi, K.J., Yu, K.K. and Chang, K.W. Tocopherols and fatty acid in plant seeds from Korea. J. Korean Agric. Cherm. Soc. 35: 1-5 (1992)
  14. Yoon, T.H., Im, K.J. and Kim, D.H. Fatty acid composition of lipids obtained from Korean soybean varieties. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 16: 375-382 (1984)
  15. Kim, J.S. Current research trends on bioactive function of soybean. Soybean Digest 13: 17-24 (1996)
  16. Kim, J.G., Kim, S.K and Lee, J.S. Fatty acid composition and electrophoretic patterns of protein of Korean soybean. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 20: 263-271 (1988)
  17. Kim, S.D., Kim, Y.H., Hong, E.H. and Park, E.H. Agronomic characteristics of black soybean collections in Korea. Korean J. Crop Sci. 38:432-436 (1993)
  18. Bae, E.A. and Moon, G.S. A study on the antioxidative activities of Korean soybeans. J. Korean Soc. Food. Sci. Nutr. 26: 203-208 (1997)