Effects of Butanol Fraction of Alisma canaliculatum with Vitamin E on Plasma Levels of Glucose and Lipid in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

택사 butanol 분획물과 vitamin E의 투여가 streptozotocin 유발 당뇨 흰쥐의 혈당 및 혈장 지질수준에 미치는 영향

  • Published : 2003.08.01

Abstract

The effects of butanol (BuOH) fraction of Alisma canaliculatum (Ac) with vitamin E in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats were determined. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 5 groups: normal, STZ-control, and 3 diabetic-experimental groups. Diabetes mellitus was induced by injection of STZ (45 mg/kg) into the tail vein. The BuOH fraction of Ac and vitamin E were administrated orally in experimental rats for 21 days: Ac group (400 mg/kg), Ac-VE group (Ac 400 mg/kg & vitamin E 10 mg/kg), and VE group (vitamin E 10 mg/kg). The body weight losses were seen in all groups except normal, and the decrements in experimental groups were less than that in diabetic-control group. The plasma glucose levels were significantly lower in Ac group compared to STZ-control group on 21 day (p<0.05). The plasma level of insulin was slightly higher in AC-VE group than other diabetic groups. The plasma cholesterol levels of diabetic-experimental groups were significantly lower than those of STZ-control group on 14 day (p<0.05). ALT and AST activities of diabetic-experimental groups were significantly lower than that of STZ-control group (p<0.05). The results suggested that the BuOH fraction of Ac might possess hypoglycemic properties in STZ-induced diabetic rats and no synergistic effect of vitamin E was seen during the experimental period.

Keywords

Alisma canaliculatum;vitamin E;diabetes;glucose level;lipid level

References

  1. Korean Statistical Association. Annual Report on the Cause of Death Statistics. Korean Statistical Association, Seoul, Korea (2002)
  2. Abrams, J.J., Ginberg, H. and Grundy, S.M. Metabolism of cholesterol and plasma triglycerides in non-ketotic diabetes mellitus. Diabetes 31: 903-910 (1982) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.31.10.903
  3. Choi, J.S., Chung, H.Y. and Han, S.Y. A preliminary study on hypocholesterolemic and hypoglycemic activities of some medicinal plants. Korean J. Pharm. 21: 153-157 (1990)
  4. Kim, T.H., Yang, K.S. and Whang, S.H. Studies on the physiochemical activities of Commelinae herba extract on the normal and the streptozotocin-induced hyperglycemic rats. Thesis coJlection. SM Pharm. Sci. 7: 39-59 (1990)
  5. Lim, S.J., Kim, S.Y. and Lee, J.W. The effects of Korean wild vegetables on blood glucose levels and liver-muscle metabolism of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 28: 585594 (1995)
  6. Jung, P.G. Vegetables of Herb Medicine. Hong Shin Co., Seoul, Korea (1994)
  7. Huang, K.C. The Pharmacology of Chinese Herbs, p. 104. Boca Raton, Ann Arbor, London, UK (1993)
  8. Prichard, K.A., Patel, S.T., Karper, C.W., Newman, H.A.I. and Panganamala, R.V. Triglyceride lowering effects of dietary vitamin E in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Increased lipoprotein lipase activity in livers of diabetic rats fed high dietary vitamin E. Diabetes 35: 278-281 (1986) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.35.3.278
  9. Lim, S.J and Won, S.B. Effects of Korean wild vegetables on blood glucose levels and energy metabolites in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Soc. Food Sci. 13: 639-647 (1997)
  10. Lim, S.J. and Kim, S.H. The effect of each fraction of methanol extraction of Alisma canaliculatum on blood glucose levels and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 34: 619-625 (2001)
  11. Bauer, J.D. Clinical Laboratory Methods. 9th ed. pp. 188-189. Mosby Co., St. Louis, USA (1982)
  12. Richmond, W. Preparation and properties of a cholesterol oxidase from Nocardia sp. and its application to the enzymatic assay of total cholesterol in serum. Clin. Chem. 19: 1350-1356 (1973)
  13. Reitman, S. and Frankel, S. A colorimetric method the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol. 28: 58-63 (1957)
  14. Kim, M.H., Kim, H.Y., Kim, W.K., Kim, J.Y. and Kim, S.H. Effects of soy oligosaccharides on blood glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 34: 3-13 (2001)
  15. Sexton, W.L. Skeletal muscle vascular transport capacity in diabetic rats. Diabetes 43: 225-231 (1994) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.43.2.225
  16. Prichard, K.A., Patel, S.T., Karper, C.W., Newman, H.A.I. and Panganamala, R.V. Triglyceride lowering effects of dietary vitamin E in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Increased lipoprotein lipase activity in livers of diabetic rats fed high dietary vitamin E. Diabetes 35: 278-281 (1986) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.35.3.278
  17. Tai, E.S., Lim, S.C., Tan, B.Y., Chew, S.K., Heng, D. and Tan, C.E. Screening for diabetes meJlitus: a two-step approach in individuals with impaired fasting glucose improves detection of those at risk of complications. Diabetes Med. 17: 771-775 (2000) https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1464-5491.2000.00382.x
  18. Sohal, R.S. and AJlen, R.G. Oxidative stress as a causal factor in differentiation and aging: A unifying hypothesis. Exp. Gerontol. 25: 499-522 (1990) https://doi.org/10.1016/0531-5565(90)90017-V
  19. Science Encyclopedia Co. East Medical Science Ed. A Series of Chinese Herbal Medicines of East Medical Science 15. Yeokang Co., Seoul, Korea (1991)
  20. Rabbo, E. and Terkildsen, T.C. On the enzymatic determination of blood glucose. Scandinav.J. Lab. Invest. 12: 402-407 (1960) https://doi.org/10.3109/00365516009065404
  21. Urano, S., Midori, H.H., Tochihi, N., Matsuo, M. and Ito, H. Vitamin E and the susceptibility of erythrocytes and reconstituted liposomes to oxidative stress in aged diabetics. Lipid 26: 58-61 (1991) https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02544025
  22. Patil, G.S. and Comwell, D.G. Interracial oxidation of $\alpha$-tocopherol and surface properties of its oxidation products. J. Lipid Res. 19: 416-422 (1978)
  23. Lim, S.S, Kim, M.H. and Lee, J.H. Effect of Artemisia Princeps var Orientalis and Circium japonicum var Ussuriense on liver function, body lipid, and bile acid of hyperlipidemic rat. Korean J. Nutr. 30: 797-802 (1997)
  24. Rao, M., Blane, K. and Zonnenberg, M. PC-STAT. Dept. Food Sci., Univ. of Georgia, USA (1985)
  25. Adams, J.J.D., Lauerburg, B.H. and Mitchell, J.R. Plasma glutathione and glutathione disulfide in the rat. Regulation and response to oxidative stress. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 227: 749-753 (1983)
  26. Finely, P.R., Schifrnan, R.B., Williams, R.J. and Luchti, D.A. Cholesterol in high density lipoprotein: use of $Mg^{2+}$/dcxtran sulfate in its measurement. J. Clin. Chem. 24: 931-933 (1978)
  27. Preston, A.M., Tome, J., Morales, J.J., Milan, L., Cuevas, A.A., Medina, J. and Santiago, J.A. Diabetic parameters 58 weeks after injection with streptozotocin in rats fed basal diet supplemented with fiber, mineral and vitamins. Nutr. Res. 11: 895-906 (1991) https://doi.org/10.1016/S0271-5317(05)80617-7
  28. Lee, J.S., Son, H.S., Maeng, Y.S., Chang, Y.K. and Ju, J.S. Effects of buckwheat on organ weight, glucose and lipid metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 27: 819-827 (1994)
  29. Reddi, A.S. and Bollineni, J.S. Selenium-deficient diet renal oxidative stress and injury via TGF-beta 1 in normal and diabetic rats. Kidney Int. 59: 1342-1353 (2001) https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1523-1755.2001.0590041342.x
  30. Nam, S.H. and Kang, M.Y. Screening of antioxidative activity of hot-water extracts from medical plants. J. Korean Soc. Agric. Chem. Biotechnol. 43: 141-147 (2000)
  31. Wannamethee, S.G., Perry, I.J. and Shaper, A.G. Hematocrit and risk of NIDDM. Diabetes 45: 576-579 (1996) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.45.5.576
  32. Brooks, D.P., Nutting, T.F., Crofton, J.T. and Share, L. Vasopressin in rats with genetic and streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes 38: 54-57 (1989) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.38.1.54
  33. Pain, V.M. and Garlick, P. Effect of streptozotocin diabetes and insulin treatment on the rate of protein synthesis in tissues of the rat in vivo. J. Biol. Chem. 249: 4510-4514 (1974)
  34. Tang, W. and Einsenbrand, G. Chinese Drugs of Plant Origin, p. 75. Springer Verlag, NY, USA (1992)
  35. Reeves, P.G. Components of the AIN-93 diets as improvements in the AIN-76A diet. J. Nutr. 127: 838S-841S (1997) https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/127.5.838S
  36. Giegel, J.L., Ham, S.B. and Clema, W. Serum triglyceride determined colorimetry with an enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide. J. Clin. Chem. 21: 1575-1581 (1975)
  37. Mandarino, L.J. Current hypothesis for biochemical basis of retinopathy. Diabetes Care 15: 1892-1901 (1992) https://doi.org/10.2337/diacare.15.12.1892
  38. Haglund, O., Loustarinen, R., Wallin, R., Wibell, I. and Saldeen, T. The effect of fish oil on triglycerides cholesterol, fibrinogen and malondialdehyde in humans supplemented with vitamin. Eur. J. Nutr. 121: 165-172 (1991) https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/121.2.165
  39. Paolisso, G. and D'Amore, A. Pharmacological doses of vitamin E improve insulin action in healthy subjects and non-insulindependent diabetes patients. Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 57: 650-656 (1993) https://doi.org/10.1093/ajcn/57.5.650
  40. Lee, S.S. and Kim, J.W. Pharmacological studies on the water extract of fractis of Lycium chinese Mill. Duksung Bull. Pharm. Sci. 2: 29-41 (1991)
  41. Junod, A., Lambert, A.E., Stauffacher, W. and Renold, A.E. Diabetogenic action of streptozotocin: relationship of dose to metabolic response. J. Clin. Invest. 48: 2129-2139 (1969) https://doi.org/10.1172/JCI106180
  42. Nikkila, E.A. and Kekki, M. Plasma triglyceride transport kinetics in diabetes mellitus. Metabolism 22: 1-22 (1973) https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(73)90024-3
  43. Wu, H.P., Tai, T.Y., Chuang, L.M., Lin, B.J., Wang, J.D. and Teng, C.M. Effect of tocopherol on platelet aggregation in noninsulin- dependent diabetes mellitus in vivo and vitro studies. J. Formos Med. Assoc. 91: 270-275 (1992)
  44. Medical Laboratory Technology and Clinical Pathology. 2nd ed. WB Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA (1969)
  45. Dai, S. and McNeill, J.H. One year treatment of non-diabetic and streptozotocin-diabetic rats with vanadyl sulphate did not alter blood pressure or haematological indices. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 74: 110-115 (1994) https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0773.1994.tb01084.x
  46. O'Meara, N.M.G., Devery, R.A.M., Owens, D., Collins, P.B., Johnson, A.H. and Tomkin, G.H. Cholesterol metabolism in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Diabetes 39: 626-633 (1990) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.39.5.626
  47. Korean Association. Annual Report on the Morbidity in the Collective Medical Examination Korean Association, Seoul, Korea (2003)
  48. Behren, W.A. and Madere, R. Vitamin C and vitamin E status in the spontaneously diabetics BB rat before the onset of diabetes. Metabolism 40: 72-76 (1991) https://doi.org/10.1016/0026-0495(91)90195-3
  49. Gold, G., Manning, M., Heldt, A., Nowlain, R., Pettit, J.G. and Grodsky, G.M. Diabetes induced with multiple subdiabetogenic doses of streptozotocin. Diabetes 30: 634-638 (1981) https://doi.org/10.2337/diabetes.30.8.634
  50. Allain, C.C., Poon, L.S., Chan, C.S.G., Richmond, W. and Fu, P.C. Enzymatic determination of total serum cholesterol. J. Clin. Chem. 20: 470-475 (1974)
  51. Kim, M.W., Park, M.H. and Kim, K.H. Effects of mushroom protein- bound polysaccharides on blood glucose levels and energy metabolism in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Korean J. Nutr. 30: 743-750 (1997)