DOI QR코드

DOI QR Code

Influence of Caponization on the Carcass Characteristics in Taiwan Country Chicken Cockerels

  • Lin, Cheng-Yung (Department of Technical and Service, Taiwan Livestock Research Institute, Council of Agriculture) ;
  • Hsu, Jenn-Chung (Department of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University)
  • Received : 2002.03.04
  • Accepted : 2002.11.21
  • Published : 2003.04.01

Abstract

We determined the effect of caponization on the carcass and giblet characteristics, and skin and muscle color in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Caponized birds were surgically altered at 10 weeks old and were fed growing and finishing diets ad libitum during an eighteen-week experimental period. The results showed that the percentage of dressing, heart, feet, thigh, head and neck were significantly (p<0.05) higher in the intact birds, while the capons had a higher (p<0.05) percentage of abdominal fat, intestine, back, wing and breast. Eviscerated weight, breast width, gizzard, liver and spleen ratios were not affected by the treatments. The breast skin color values for lightness (L*) and yellowness (b*) values in the capons were significantly (p<0.05) higher than in the intact birds, but the thigh and back skin were not significantly(p>0.05)different. Compared with the intact birds, the capons had a significantly (p<0.05) less redness (a*) values in the back skin, but were not significantly (p>0.05) different in the breast and thigh skin. The L* value of the thigh muscle was significantly (p<0.05) greater in the capons than in the intact birds, but were not significantly (p>0.05) different in breast and back muscles. The b* values in the breast, back and thigh muscles of the capons were significantly (p<0.05) greater whereas the intact birds had a higher (p<0.05) a* values in the breast, back, and thigh muscles. Moreover, our findings also indicate that the castration resulted in a significant alteration in dressing percentage, carcass region and organ percentage.

Keywords

Caponization;Androgen;Carcass characteristic;Color;Giblet

References

  1. Lin, C. Y. and J. C. Hsu. 2002a. Effects of surgical caponization on growth performance, fiber diameter and some physical properties of muscles in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 15:401-405. https://doi.org/10.5713/ajas.2002.401
  2. Lyon, C. E. and J. A. Cason. 1995. Effect of water chilling on objective color of bruised and unbruised broiler tissue. Poult. Sci. 74:1894-1899. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0741894
  3. Miltenburg, G. A. J., Th. Wensing, F. J. M. Smulders and H. J. Breukink. 1992. Relationship between blood hemoglobin, plasma and tissue iron, muscle heme pigment, and carcass color of veal. J. Anim. Sci. 70:2766-2772. https://doi.org/10.2527/1992.7092766x
  4. Prescott, J. H. D. and G. E. Lamming. 1964. The effects of castration on meat production in cattle, sheep and pigs. J. Agr. Sci. 63:341-357. https://doi.org/10.1017/S0021859600016026
  5. Yoshitaka, O., I. Hisao and T. Hitoshi. 1982. Studies on the growth skeletal muscle of capon 2. Effects of castration on muscle weights in different body parts and individual muscle weight. Sci. Bull. Fac. Agr., Kyushu Univ. pp. 27-30.
  6. Megally, M. A., R. B. Harrington and W. J. Stadelman. 1969. The effect of estradiol-17 beta monopalmitate on yields and quality of chicken roasters. Poult. Sci. 48:130-136. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0480130
  7. Chen, K. L., C. P. Wu and R. G. Chou. 2000b. Effect of caponization age on growth performance and postmortem change in muscle of Taiwan country chicken. Journal of the Agricultural Association of China 1:54-63. (in Chinese)
  8. Koch, T. and E. Possa. 1973. Anatomy of the chicken and domestic birds. p.12. Humbaldt University, West Germany.
  9. Miller, L. E., L. M. Krista, J. Brake, S. L. Bolden, G. R. McDaniel and E. Mora. 1985. Effects of caponization on body weight, atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular variables in hypertensive and hypotensive turkey lines. Poult. Sci. 64:1002-1014. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0641002
  10. Froning, G. W., J. Daddarid and T. E. Hartung. 1968. Color and myoglobin concentration in turkey meats as effected by age, sex, and strain. Poult. Sci. 47:1827-1836. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0471827
  11. Mickelberry, W. C. 1968. Influence of dietary fats and estradiol-17 beta monopalmitate upon the edible meat yield of roaster chickens. Poult. Sci. 47:1254-1257. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0471254
  12. Siers, D. G. 1975. Live and carcass traits in individually fed Yorkshire boars, barrows and gilts. J. Anim. Sci. 41:522-526. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1975.412522x
  13. Watson, M. J. 1969. The effects of castration on the growth and meat quality of grazing cattle. Australian J. Exp. Agr. Anim. Hus. 9:64-72.
  14. Hill, F. W. and L. M. Dansky. 1951. The influence of diet on body composition of growing chicks. IN:Proc. Cornell Nutr. Conf. pp. 27-32.
  15. Pearce, J. 1977. Effect of testosterone on hepatic lipid metabolism in the mature female domestic fowl. J. Endocrinology 75:343-344. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.0750343
  16. Dube, J. Y. and R. R. Trembley. 1974. Androgen binding in cock's tissues:properties of ear lobe protein and determination of binding of ear lobe protein and binding sites in head appendages and other tissues. Endocrinology 95:1105-1112. https://doi.org/10.1210/endo-95-4-1105
  17. Lobley, G. E., A. Connell, V. Buchan, P. A. Skene and J. M. Fletcher. 1987. Administration of testosterone to wether lambs:effects on protein and energy metabolism and growth hormone status. J. Endocrinology 115:439-446. https://doi.org/10.1677/joe.0.1150439
  18. Fennell, M. J. and C. G. Scanes. 1992a. Inhibition of growth in chickens by testosterone, 5$\alpha$-dihydrotestosterone, and 19-nortestosterone. Poult. Sci. 71:357-366. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0710357
  19. Kemp, J. D., J. D. Crouse, W. Deweese and W. G. Moody. 1970. Effect of slaughter weight and castration on carcass characteristics of lambs. J. Anim. Sci. 30:348-354. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1970.303348x
  20. Burton, R. R. and A. H. Smith. 1972. The effect of chronic erythrocyte poly cythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. 140:920-923. https://doi.org/10.3181/00379727-140-36580
  21. SAS. 1988. SAS user guide:Statistics. SAS Inst., Cary, NC.
  22. Stewart, P. A. and K. W. Washburn. 1983. Variation in growth hormone, triiodthyroxine and lipogenic enzyme activity in broiler strains differing in growth and fatness. Growth 47:411-425.
  23. Lin, C. C. 1999. Effects of different age of injecting estradiol into Taiwan country chicken on the agonistic behavior, sexual behavior, social status, economic traits and texture properties of breast meat in the later period of growing and the maturate. Master thesis, Department of Animal Science, Nationial Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan, ROC. (in Chinese)
  24. Sauerwein, H. and H. H. D. Meyer. 1989. Androgen and estrogen receptors in bovine skeletal muscle: Relation to steroidinduced allometric muscle growth. J. Anim. Sci. 67:206-212. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1989.671206x
  25. Wismer-Pedersen, J. 1968. Boars as meat producers. World Review of Anim. Prod. 4:101-110.
  26. York, L. R, and J. D. Mitchell. 1969. The effect of estradiol-17$\beta$-monopalmiate and surgical caponization on production efficiencies, yields and organic characteristics of chicken broiler. Poult. Sci. 48:1532-1536. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0481532
  27. Griggs, R. C, W. Kingston, R. F. Jozefowicz, B. E. Herr, G. Forbes and D. Halliday. 1989. Effect of testosterone on muscle mass and muscle protein synthesis. J. Appl. Physiol. 66:498-503. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1989.66.1.498
  28. Cason, J. A., D. L. Fletcher and W. H. Burke. 1987. Influence of caponization on skin pigmentation of meat broilers. Poult. Sci. 66:433-438. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0660433
  29. Chen, K. L., C. P. Wu and Y. M. Hong. 2000a. Meat quality and carcass traits of capon in comparison with intact male and female Taiwan country chicken. J. Chinese Soc. Anim. Sci. 29:77-88. (in Chinese)
  30. Champagne, J. R., J. W. Carpenter, J. F. Hentges, Jr., A. Z. Palmer and M. Koger. 1969. Feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of young bulls and steers castrated at four ages. J. Anim. Sci. 29:887-890. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1969.296887x
  31. Collins, W. M., S. C. Thayer and W. C. Skoglund. 1955. Breed and strain differences in shank pigmentation in growing chickens. Poult. Sci. 34:223-228. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0340223
  32. Lin, C. Y. and J. C. Hsu. 2002b. Comparison of some selected growth, physiological and bone characteristics of capon, slip and intact birds in Taiwan country chicken cockerels. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. (Accepted)
  33. Wang, H. T. 2001. Effects of surgical caponization and administration of estradiol to chicken embryos on daily activity, agonistic behavior, growth performance, carcass traits and sensory evaluation of males Taiwan country chickens. Master thesis. Graduate institute of Animal Science, National Chung-Hsing University, Taiwan, ROC. (in Chinese)
  34. Fennell, M. J. and C. G. Scanes. 1992b. Effect of androgen(testosterone, 5$\alpha$-dihydrotestosterone, and 19-nortestosterone)administration on growth in turkey. Poult. Sci. 71:539-547. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0710539
  35. Lyon, L. E., B. G. Lyon, C. E. Davis and W. E. Townsend. 1980. Texture profile analysis of patties made from mixed and flakecut mechanically debone. Poult. Sci. 59:69-76. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0590069
  36. Snochowski, M., K. Lundstrom, E. Dahlberg, H. Peterson and L. E. Edqvist. 1981. Androgen and glucocorticoid receptors in porcine skeletal muscle. J. Anim. Sci. 53:80-90. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas1981.53180x
  37. Troutt, E. S., M. C. Hunt, D. E. Johnson, J. R. Claus, C. L. Kastner, D. H. Kropf and S. Stroda. 1992. Chemizal, physical and sensory characterization of ground beef containing 5 to 30 percent fat. J. Food. Sci. 57:25-29. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2621.1992.tb05416.x
  38. Mast, M. G., H. C. Jordan and J. H. Macneil. 1981. The effect of partial and complete caponization on growth rate, yield, and selected physical and sensory attributes of cockerels. Poult. Sci. 60:1827-1833. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0601827
  39. Jaap, R. G. 1955. Shank color and barred plumage in columbiancolored chickens. Poult. Sci. 34:389-395. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0340389
  40. Hillebrand, S. J. W., E. Lambody and C. H. Veerkamp. 1996. The effects of alternative electrical and mechanical stunning methods on hemorrhaging and meat quality of broiler breast and thigh muscles. Poult. Sci. 75:664-671. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0750664
  41. Solberg, M. 1968. Factor affecting fresh meat color. Proc. Meat Ind Res. Conf. pp. 32-40.

Cited by

  1. The effect of age and castration on the growth rate, blood lipid profile, liver histology and feed conversion in Green-legged Partridge cockerels and capons vol.11, pp.06, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1017/S1751731116002378
  2. Effects of ovariectomy on body measurements, carcass composition, and meat quality of Huainan chickens vol.57, pp.5, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1071/AN15815